The purpose of the International Hydrofoil Society in creating this Phanfare Alblum site is to assist the hydrofoil world by providing one place where most hydrofoils photos can be found. We do not profit from doing so, and all work is done by unpaid volunteers.
Thanks to all of you who have contributed to this site. Please do your part. Visit the site and then upload your hydrofoil photos to the "dropbox" symbol in the upper right corner of the home IHS.phanfare.com. The symbol is a box (Looks like a U) with an arrow pointing down into it, or go to: IHSs Dropbox
IMPORTANT: Where possible, please include a description of what the photos show, when and where they were taken, who took the photos etc. It is essential to credit the providers, if at all possible.
If any viewer having a proprietary interest in any photo objects to its display, contact Photomgr@foils.org, and upon request it will be removed from our site. To communicate to any of the Sites organizers, send an email to Photomgr@foils.org
Return to IHSs Home Page
Table of Contents of all IHS Photo and Video Sites:
- A - AlpineFoil.com
The photos are from the Alpinefoil.com web site. Any request to remove photos from Phanfare will be honored immediately. Our intent is to increase public exposure to this fine product.
Made in France. Cost about $1,000.
Translated from their website, Alpinefoil.com :
Alpinefoil kitefoil manufacturer of high carbon range.
After funboard in the 80s, kite in the 2000s, kitefoil (hydrofoil pulled by a kite) is revolutionizing skiing.
It provides new and amazing sensations, divided between those felt on a snowboard in a fine powder and that of the free flight, with its very pure skiing in perfect silence. It lets you browse from 5-6 knots and be really fun in the light. Its upwind is hallucinating and allows to consider all the water as the playground. The kitefoil also multiplies his time kiteboarding, almost 100% of trips in the spot being validated by a session.
Alpinefoil based in the French Alps on the border of the Isere and Savoie is a manufacturer kitefoils aloud carbon range. The company specializes in the engineering, design and manufacture of composite Kitefoil for kiteboarding.
To access the detail of the products click the headings and Kitefoil Board.
For all requests, please feel free to contact us or contact our local dealers.
Good site navigation AlpineFoil.
- A - Blade Rider
- A - Brett Curtis, Australia
Board designed and built by Brett Curtis, Australia. He gives thanks to Alex Budlevskis for riding the surfcraft and Adam Rowlinson for taking the video and stills.
Posted by RV 7/5/2013
- A - Delta Kite Boards
- A - Hydrofoil Board Chairs
Lake Powell Video
- A - Jiwon Jung
This is a futuristic Kite Surfer
- A - Kite boards
Bridge to Bridge Race
- A - Kite Foil Australia Boards
From their web site: Kitefoil.com.au
About – Kite Foil Australia (KFA)
Kite Foil Australia (KFA) is a proud 100% Australian owned and operated design and manufacturing business, based in the Melbourne suburb of Sunshine.
KFA has exclusive access to the manufacturing expertise of Composites Australias’ Peter Cooler and his team. Applying excellence in design is just the tip of this highly dynamic and forward thinking business.
With a diverse background drawn from design, manufacturing, retailing and professional kite and sail racing and teaching, the KFA team are highly focused to produce world-class kitefoil products.
KFA has dedicated team kitefoil racers based in Australia and all around the world, many of whom are competing in the Kitefoil Gold Cup tour. With the demands of professional racing driving our passion in design, manufacture, test, supply these fantastic innovative foils will become a preference for kiters around the world.
We strive to make the best quality hydrofoils with state of the art designs including racing, long distance, speed and wave foils.
The Team- Bios
Marvin Baumeister – Team Rider and Marketing, R&D. MORE INFO
Riccardo Andrea Leccese – Teamrider and Development
Justin Thomas- Principal Engineer, R&D
Peter Cooler - Master Foil Builder. MORE INFO
Florian Gruber – Teamrider and Distribution Germany
Torrin Bright – Teamrider and Testing
Nico Lauderer – Teamrider and Development and Distributor Americans
Andre Phillip aka Dre- Teamrider
Theo Ramecourt- Teamrider and French Distribution
Ewan Jaspen- Teamrider
Jason Cane- Teamrider
KFA by Temavento
- A - N 2 Orbit Hardcore Hydrofoils
Jeff KurtzN 2 Orbit Hardcore Hydrofoils
- A - Sailing Boards
- A - Sky Ski
For more information go to:
- A - Spotz Wind Surfer Foil
Here is some images from a french foil maker called Atelier JC-Kiteboards. Their kiteboard, Spotz, has some of best top speed (vmax35knts) of all kite foils right now.
These photos were sent to us by a friend in Austrailia who admired the fine work of these French foil makers. We liked the craftsmanship and style so we hope to share images.
JC was contacted and they granted us permission to display these photos. Take a look at their web site in particular, view their videos:
- A - Terry Hendricks So California Kneeboard
Terry Hendricks will be missed by many, especially those of us who love hydrofoils. He was one of the true 'rocket scientists', who choose to funnel his creative energies into designing, building, and testing hydrofoils. He was a good friend and one of 6 original members of our informal Southern California "Human Powered Group."
Terry Hendricks, Ph.D, for more than a decade has been searching for the perfect combination of kneeboard and hydrofoils. Although some of his original ideas are covered by his patent, many are still top secret. That is why he often tests his boards at Swami's surf beach in Encinitas, California at 4am.
Terry has the distinction of being one of the few surfers bitten by a harbor seal. When asked why such a docile animal would bite, Terry replied, "They get excited when stepped on in the dark."
Terry passed away peacefully june 13, 2013, in his home town of Encinitas, California.
Here is his death announcement, rather hard to read and says only that he died peacefully:
Here is a Youtube memorial to Terry
Still photos & text by Ray Vellinga & others 5/30/2013
- A - Tony Klarich Photos
From the site:
Explaination of the bike photo, by Klarich:
The Hydrofoil Bike was a proof of concept project for a Powerade commercial. The idea for the commercial was to have a guy on the beach drink some Powerade, and the colored liquid is so amazing that he is able to hop on a bike and ride it across the water!
The actual project to get this bike to fly took 5 days. Klarich got up on the bike using the pegs on the front tire as footrests. A deck similar to a regular sit down hydrofoil was in place until flight, then after pulling a pin it split in two lengthwise to release from the rig.
Thanks to Tony Klarich
- A - Tooroa
- A - UFO
- A - Wakesurfer
- AAA - TEST WITH INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO MOVE AN ALBUM TO TIMELESS
This is a test of how to move an album from one site to the other.
I opened Barney Black's Post Card album (was it in site 2013?)
I clicked on any photo to select.
All photos were then selected by Ctrl / A.
Then I created a new album in Timeless.
First clicked on anywhere in the blank album and then selected Ctrl / P or Paste.
- B - 27 VIDEOS by Ray Vellinga
These videos were all made for Youtube where they have been viewed 7 million times.
Notes to Administrators:
To add a video click on 'Import', click on My Computer, then click on the specific video file.
Notice that the video must be on your hard drive first to be able to upload it. Links to Youtube do not appear to work (if you can make this link to Youtube, contact me).
- C - AF Chapman
- C - Air America
- C - Atukara
- C - Ava Ava
- C - Bandersnatch Series, 2006, Dwight Filley, San Diego
Photos and posting by RV 9/3/2013. To be edited.
- C - Brizzolara
- C - D-Scarfo, Dwight Filley
This is an early attempt at a mono-hull. It is loosely inspired by a boat seen on the internet called Scarfo. Combined with Dwight's first initial and we have D-Scarfo. Shutt Strut in front and a submerged main foil aft. Roll control was a problem. The boat was also a little heavy for a HPV. Building techniques improved with practice. Ray is the test pilot in this series of tests.
Photos by Dwight Filley, posted by RV 6/11/2013
- C - Decavitator
- C - Delta Lloyd, dutch Foil
Not much known except this is a Dutch project.
Any information provided will be appreciated.
- C - Detglider
For more information go to:
- C - Dragon Fly and Flying Carpet, Steve Ball
- C - Dwight Filley and Steve Ball fly together
Photos and posting by RV 6/3/2013
- C - Dwight Filleys Human Powered Hydrofoils
- C - Fisjok
- C - Flying Colors, Delft University , Netherlands
Flying Colours, a Dutch tandem pedal powered hydrofoil which hangs from the ceiling in the Mechanical / Marine Written by Malin Dixon:
Engineering building at the Technical University Delft located in Delft, The Netherlands.
A sign hanging from the craft reads:-
Human Powered Flapless Hydrofoil
Speed: 15 knots
Weight: 33 kg
Designed and Built by: Delft Waterbike Technology.
I suspect it is actually a student design project.
I photographed it from various angles including of various key details when I visited there earlier in June 2007. There are sufficient views that anyone could almost scale off some plans from the photos and build a replica for their own use!
Submitted by Martin Grimm, IHS
Posted by RV, 6/21/2013
- C - Flying Fish, etc. Human Powered
Discovery Channel Video
- C - Flying Magic
- C - Flying Phantom
- C - Foil Testing, Dwight Filley & Steve Ball, California
Routine test of 2 boats on El Capitan Reservoir, Santee California, 12/20/2013
Video of Steve Ball study of Shutt Strut photographed by Jim Bixby
Posted by RV
- C - Foiled Again
- C - Freaksport.com Human Powered foil links
Paste this link in your URL:
- C - Haarlem Shuffle
- C - Haiflyke
- C - HPH using temporary engines, Dwight Filley & Steve Ball, --one VIDEO + PHOTOS
This is an ongoing testing program for Dwight and Steve. They both have designed boats that fly using engines. Steve is gas powered and Dwight is battery powered. The engines produce more power than either rider, but when the designs have been perfected, a top performing athlete will be recruited and we will see how fast a human powered hydrofoil can really go. Remember, the world speed record of 18.5 knots was set by pilot/designer Mark Drela, a university professor, not a professional athlete.
See Drela fly Decavitator at:
Photos and post by Ray Vellinga, July 11, 2013
- C - Human Powered Hydrofoil Links
- C - Hydroped, Sid Shutt
- C - HYSWAS Hydrofoil, Small Waterplane Area Ship, Dwight Filley
Dwight did a series of perhaps three Hydrofoil Small Waterplane Area Ships (although none were ships). The idea is to get free lift from the submerged bodies. In fact the lift is not free. Especially with the large single torpedo, the lift so far beneath the center of gravity was extremely destabilizing. In those early days I was the test pilot, before Dwight discovered how much fun I was having, and I spent more time flying through the air and into the water than time flying. In fact almost no time was spent flying the single torpedo. Too unstable. The 4-poster, 4-torpedo model was fairly stable, but the added resistance of the four floats seemed to cancel any anticipated drag savings. The project was eventually abandoned for conventional hydrofoil configurations.
Photos & text by Ray Vellinga. Posted 6/8/2013
- C - Iron Butterfly, HydroBow, NewFisics, etc
- C - Long Shot, Steve Ball, So California
Steve Ball's early Surf's up, blue mono hull, and Dragon fly, wood colored tri-hull.
Dragon Fly flew the best. Its longest flight was 40 minutes with Steve as pilot (time to be verified).
Photos by RV. Posted 6/3/2013
- C - Misc Human Powered - to be Moved to Alblums
- C - Mutiny on the Boundry Layer
- C - New Fisics
- C - Pogofoil
- C - Scafo
SCAFOU by www.Scafou.de
- Length 360 cm
- Width 60 cm
- Wing Span 220 cm
- Depth 90 cm
- Weight 18 Kg
- Max. Speed 12 Kn/23 Kmh
- Average Speed for longer distances 8 Kn/15 Kmh
- Launch Speed ca. 4 kn/7,5 Kmh
- Weight of the driver max. 85 Kg
- required power ca. 250 W
- C - Silver Swan
- C - Super Phoenix
- C - Surf Plank, Willem Hekman, Netherlands
This was a summer project for Willem in between school semesters.
Photos provided by Willem Hekman. Posted by RV 6/8/2013
- C - Victor Mimken, Idaho Human Powered Foil
Victor show some fine craftsmanship in creating this human powered hydrofoil. According to Victor, the boat flew well. There are videos available of the flight and if they are found, they will be published on this site.
Photos by Victor Mimken. Posted by R V 5/30/2013
- C - Voa Brazil
For more photos and information click on:
This boat claims to go 18.64 mph. This is close to Decavitator's world speed record for the class.
- C - Water Strider
- C - Waterbike & Haiflyite Hydrofoil Bicycles
- C - Wave Evader Series, Dwight Filley, So California 2005
This Human Powered Catamaran was a series of about 5 foil configurations on the same Wave Evader hull.
Photos by Ray Vellinga, Posted 6/8/2013
- C - Wetwing
- C - Yellow String Bean, Dwight Filley
- C -Slip Velocity
- CC - AquaSkipper
- CC - Hydrothoter
- CC - Jake Free, USA, Arm & Leg Powered
Jake Free of Elkhart, Indiana was in the business of making Shutt Struts (front foils). The one shown has been joined with a forward facing surface follower. It was used on Ray Vellinga's High Flying Banana, Hifybe.
He also experimented with human, arm and leg, powered hydrofoils.
Photos and posting by RV, 7/2/2013
- CC - Pumpabike
- CC - Trampofoil
- CC - UFOS
- CC - Wasserläufer
Picture and Videos
- CC - WingBike, Steven De Lannoy -
Steven De Lannoy has started his WingBike project in 2012. It took a year of his spare time to design, build and test it. By the end of 2013 most structural and hydrodynamic problems were solved and several successful flights were made. However, pitch sensitivity remains a tough problem to solve. Now that the water is becoming too cold in The Netherlands, Steven will be using the winter months to improve the design. In 2014 he hopes to set some distance records in The Netherlands and he will be thinking about automating the height control of the hydrofoil.
You can visit his site here
- CCC - Flayak Hydrofoil Kayak
This unusual approach to hydrofoils is a challenger for the world human-powered hydrofoil speed record. You can see more photos and video by visiting:
My personal observation is that apparently if you make submerged foils wide enough, the roll rate will be so slow that roll control will be easy enough. Furthermore, if the submerged foils are sized to a precise speed, pitch stability is manageable. At higher speeds difficulty in control, especially in pitch, might increase.
These observations are based on the belief that the pilot's hands are totally occupied with the paddles and his legs appear to be straight within the confines of the narrow hull. This observer concludes that there is no control input from the pilot (except perhaps by using his feet on pedals?) Hopefully contact can be made with the operators and these questions can be resolved.
Most of these album photos are from Flayak's published web site.
Posted by R V 5/29/2013
Also known as the Foil Kayak?
- D - A Class
- D - AC45, Americas Cup
From the Oracle site, Team Photographer : Guilain GRENIER
The AC45 wingsail catamaran has been dubbed the “Little sister with attitude” to the
AC72, the featured catamaran for the 34th America’s Cup in 2013.
The prototype AC45 hit the water in Auckland, New Zealand, on Jan. 17, 2011, making
it the first series-built one-design class to be featured in the storied history of America’s
The AC45 came about as a means to fast-track teams’ understanding of wingsail
catamaran sailing. The craft was conceived by ORACLE TEAM USA’s designers and
engineers on behalf of the America’s Cup community.
The catamaran was built by Core Builders Composites, ORACLE TEAM USA’s
boatbuilding affiliate in Warkworth, New Zealand. Led by Tim Smyth and Mark Turner,
precise tooling and techniques were used to create molds that will produce identical
”Everything with the AC45 has turned out better than we hoped. It’s living up to
expectations for what we were shooting for: good class racing in a high-performance
catamaran,” said Ian Burns of the ORACLE TEAM USA performance team.
The brief for the new design included many features: It had to be easy to assemble and
disassemble to accommodate the active racing schedule and also to fit inside a 40-foot
container for shipping.
It had to be robust enough to sail through a wide wind range, from 5 to 30 knots, and
also survive in the event of collisions.
Settling on the 45-foot length came about after studies suggested it was best to solution
to avoid nose-diving tendencies, which can occur with short hull lengths and highaspect sail configurations.
The cat will fit inside a container aided by removable sterns. The aft cross beam has
been set forward to allow the removal of the final five feet of the hulls. Those sections
are bolted on a flange and the crossbeams also are bolted in place.
The hulls are built in carbon epoxy with honeycomb cores, making them extremely stiff
and light structures. The sandwich construction involves two carbon skins less than
1mm thick laminated over an ultra-light honeycomb core, with the laminates baked
under vacuum pressure in a giant oven for eight hours at 80°C.
See AC-45 flying
FROM THE 1ST QUARTER IHS NEWSLETTER:
What is 72 feet long, has half a wing, 13 bodies, 26 legs but uses only 2 legs to go 50mph on 25mph of wind power? Did I mention it cost over $100,000,000? If you failed the test, don't worry. Until recently 250,000,000 other Americans probably don't know the answer. That has changed. For example:
My wife and I are ordering lunch in the Yard House, the largest downtown sport bar in the port of Seattle. We are surrounded by giant TV sets playing basketball, football, tennis, whatever. The most exciting race in sailing history starts in ten minutes and in response to our interest the waiter needs to ask the bartender, "Can we get the America's Cup?"
Team Oracle is trailing the New Zealand team 1 win to 8 and this will be the last race if the Americans lose. Patricia and I and one other couple are watching, jumping, and cheering. The football fans are becoming irritated about the disturbance.
Oracle wins the race. Over the following days they continue to be unbeatable for the final 7 races. In one of the greatest come-backs ever, the Americans have overcome impossible odds to retain the Cup. How many spectators joined in, and how did the Oracle team pull it off?
During the regatta, 870,000 spectators paid at least $20 admission to be in the official viewing locations and probably a million more viewed from informal venues. Perhaps there were 5,000,000 views on live U.S. television, and over 3,000,000 Youtube viewers have since watched the TV reruns as you may do by searching forAmerica’s Cup at http://www.youtube.com). Additionally, live TV coverage was in 170 other countries. In New Zealand, a country of 4.4 million people, there were 927,000 viewers. No word on the 31 million sheep.
So how did Oracle come back so dramatically?
The race can be broken down into 3 phases (remember, because of a penalty in the AC-35 races, the two earliest wins were not counted).
Phase one, losing. Race numbers zero to 5. Oracle, won 1, lost 4. Score: zero to 4.
Phase two, improving: Races 6 to 11. Oracle won 2, lost 4. Score: 1 to 8.
Phase three, coming back: Races 12 through 19. Oracle looses none, wins 8 races. Final score: 9 to 8.
To enter the improving phase, after race number 5, Oracle exercised their postponement option and delayed one race followed by a racing lay day. This gave the team a chance to have all-hands meeting like NASA’s crisis meeting when correcting the Apollo 13 near disaster. Oracle management, engineers, and crew met to brainstorm. Several changes were made:
The center spine and bow sprint were shortened for better upwind performance.
The wing controls were modified to allow more twist high up and more curve down low. There is a “tab” on the trailing edge of the leading wing element that is designed to control the air flow between the two wing elements. The tab was adjusted to allow the slot in the wing to be open. The result was a shifting of the center of effort aft. That improved the balance of the helm, which in turn, improved upwind performance.
The hydrofoils needed some attention. All were designed for sub-cavitating conditions. But cavitation was being experienced at the intersections of the rear struts and foils as evidenced by the necessity of frequent repainting. The solution was to add torpedo-shaped fairings to the junctions. These were tuned a little on each run.
There was also cavitation at the junctions of the daggerboards and the struts. Because of the curved intersections, this was more difficult to treat. One could speculate that modifying the profile of the foil at the curve might help, but it is not known if this or anything else was tried.
It was discovered that when the Oracle boat was heeled, the V shape of the foil caused it perform like a surface piercing foil and therefore contributed to height setting stability. Also the leeward vs. vertical lift forces could be manipulated to control pitch and directional stability.
The upwind VMG, Velocity Made Good, was improved. This is the speed that the craft approaches the next mark. On the upwind legs it was discovered that by sailing slightly farther off the wind, full hydrofoiling is possible. Thereby much greater speeds are obtained. Obviously they were sailing farther off course, but the greater speeds more than made up for the increased distance. In this way, the VMG was improved.
It was discovered that the tacking techniques for monohulls and catamarans were not suitable for hydrofoils. Traditional tacking, when used on the AC72, put both hulls and all foils in the water for a relatively long time as the bow passed through the wind. The velocity during the tack was in the range of 12 to 14 knots.
New Zealand first developed and Oracle learned to do “Fast Hydrofoil Assisted Tacking”. As the boat points upwind the windward foils descend onto the water. As the tack continues, when opposite foil becomes the windward foil its hydrofoil’s AOA is sharply increased by hydraulically rotating the daggerboard on its pivot. This increases lift and the hull is quickly raised above the surface and windward hull drag is eliminated. The velocity during the tack increased to 12 – 18 knots. An excellent video with details on this technique can be viewed at:
A new tactician replaced the original, but in defense of the original, nothing increases wins more than having a faster boat.
Other proposed theories looked for the one big change that made the difference, like the one published by the English Seahorse Magazine. Here’s a quote from their December issue: "The new pitch system…is in principle a position system that uses mechanical feedback." Simply explained, two designated crew members had two buttons each. One button increased the AOA, Angle Of Attack, one button decreased the AOA. The hydraulic power was provided by the human “grinders” and a hydraulic feedback system was developed to compensate for changes in hydraulic pressure and for variable shared demand. The system allowed the pitch and height to be controlled, thus enabling extended flight. This would be a good explanation for the later winning streak, however the system was in place prior to the first race. What improved was team Oracle’s technique in using the existing system, especially upwind where the boat was more unstable and difficult to fly.
To learn more about Oracle's hydraulic control of the cant, lift, and pitch of the daggerboard hydrofoil units, read "Americas Cup 34: The Power of Oil".
The Power of Oil
So what was the big fuss about rule bending, and why were the teams so contentious about changes during the race? It relates back to the original rule modifications introduced by the First Challenger of Record, Club Nautico di Roma. By mutual consent, to keep the costs down, they restricted the design of the foil control system to keep them from being true, freely flying hydrofoils. The idea was that there would be two conditions of fast flight. First, a skimming mode were the foils created lift with low drag. But to maintain stability the hulls would remain on the surface, but barely touching. Second, there would be periods of pitch-unstable flight lasting for a limited number of boat lengths. For more:
One of these handicapping rules dictated that the rear foil’s AOA can not be adjusted after 5 minute prior to the race. Unfortunately, this aggravated a safety problem. Pitch poling plagued the boats, and they would have would have been safer if the rear foil’s AOA could be quickly reduced to prevent pitching forward and burying the bow.
Likewise, the front foils could not use any existing, safer, design to create a stability and controllability in pitch and height.
So invention was necessary and this is where the New Zealanders gained an advantage. Long before the San Francisco regatta, working with the SL33 catamaran, they did extensive experimentation with foils and daggerboards. Whereas the number of experimental boards for the AC72 is limited to ten at the commencement of the race and each set costs $400,000 or more, the SL33 foils and daggerboards cost $5,000 to $8,000 and the rules do not limit the number of permutations.
Beautiful in its simplicity, the answer was to curve the daggerboards and transform the lower parts into hydrofoils. With the boards retracted or partially extended, the main foil is horizontal. With the boards fully deployed the junction of the foil and the board changes from an ‘L’ shape to a ‘V’ shape. This not only increases the horizontal wetted area, increasing lift, but it also creates a surface piercing configuration which is a time tested design for height setting hydrofoils. For examples, see the Canadian Navy ship, Bras d’Or or the experimental Carl XCH-4, page 4 of Hydrofoils: Design, Build, Fly.
Both AC72 boats arrived in San Francisco with ‘L’ foils and curved daggerboards.
Insert Illustration HERE.
Is it possible that the Club Nautico di Roma went the wrong way with the rules? Perhaps for safety, stability, and efficiency the front foil height finding mechanism should be automated. These systems can react more quickly and more subtly than humans. The cost of adapting one of the many systems in current use might be less than that of the custom designed mechanical/hydraulic feedback positioning system.
According to scuttlebutt, some designers like the idea of having flaps on the daggerboard foils and a variable angle of incidence on the rear foil. I support this idea.
Perhaps four years from now in the venue Larry Ellison chooses for the next Americas Cup, the rules will provide for faster, equally exciting, but even safer racing.
Author, Hydrofoils: Design, Build, Fly
- D - AC72, Americas Cup
Oracle Racing Team
Oracle Racing Team
Team Photographer : Guilain GRENIER From the Oricle
ORACLE TEAM USA COUNTS DOWN TO THE LAUNCH OF
SAN FRANCISCO (Aug. 15, 2012) — By the end of the month, ORACLE TEAM USA
expects to have tested and launched the first of its two AC72 wingsail catamarans
planned for the defense of the 2013 America’s Cup.
The extreme performance sailboat is the creation of ORACLE TEAM USA’s design,
engineering and build teams.
The team is currently busy preparing for the first event of the 2012-13 America’s Cup
World Series, scheduled Aug. 21-26 in San Francisco, but as soon as that event ends
the focus shifts to the AC72.
Weather conditions will set the agenda for the week Aug. 27. Day 1 will see boat in the
water for structural load-testing and systems checks on design features such as the
steering system, daggerboard and controls for the towering 130-foot (40-meter) tall
wingsail – vital given the extreme power-to-weight ratio of the new AC72 class.
If all signed-off by the engineers and boatbuilders, Day 2 will be the yacht’s first
scheduled sail on San Francisco Bay. It will become the first AC72 to sail on the waters
of the host city.
“I can’t wait to see the new boat in the water,” said team skipper Jimmy Spithill. “The
boat looks pretty cool in the building shop. The first sail will be a very special moment
for the entire team.”
“It’s been a challenge to get to this point because we’re dealing with a completely new
design rule,” said Kramers, a multihull aficionado. “With the AC72, we’re exploring new
boundaries in many regards.”
The hulls of the new yacht were built at the team base at Pier 80, as per the America’s
Cup rules. But many of the other components, such as the wingsail and crossbeams,
were built at Core Builders Composites in New Zealand.
“Building a boat is not just about skill, it requires innovation and dedication to achieve
new levels of precision and, therefore, boatspeed,” said Construction & Shore Manager
Mark Turner. “Every one of the builders has invested a bit of their life into this boat.”The AC72 Rule is a new design rule created specifically for the 34th America’s Cup next
year. The rule sets tight limits on design parameters such as length, width, weight and
sail area. It is the first new design rule for the America’s Cup since the America’s Cup
Class Rule was created in the late 1980s.
Media opportunities will be confirmed nearer the launch date.
For more information:
ORACLE TEAM USA Public Relations
+1 719 330 0565
See AC-72 flying (and capsizing)
Excerpts from AC Facebook site:
The AC72 is a speedster unlike any seen in previous America’s Cups. Powered by a 130-foot tall wing sail and with the ability to hydrofoil, the AC72 regularly tops 35 knots boatspeed when the windspeed reaches 18 knots.
The 2013 America’s Cup Finals will also be the first match held within confined waters, the natural amphitheater of San Francisco Bay. With the racecourse stretching from Crissy Field along the city front to Pier 27, home to the America’s Cup Park, there will be many vantage points for fans and spectators to catch a glimpse of the action.
The America’s Cup Match will conclude the Summer of Racing, which begins on July 4 with the Opening Ceremony for the Louis Vuitton Cup. The 30th anniversary Louis Vuitton Cup is scheduled to conclude on Aug. 30.
Two days later 60 youth sailors aged 19-24 will take to the water in the Red Bull Youth America’s Cup, scheduled Sept. 1-4. The 10 teams of six sailors representing eight nations will have the Bay to themselves as they slug it out in the AC45s.
- D - AhoyBoats
- D - Al Powell
- D - C Class
C Class Catamaran Images
C Class Catamaran - Little Americas Cup
C Class Catamaran - Little Americas Cup
C Class Catamaran - Little Americas Cup
- D - C Fly
C-FLY uses hydrofoils in a canard arrangement which means forward hydrofoils at the bow that control the pitch of the craft and are also used for steering. This innovative layout combined with the wide multi-hull platform give the boat maximum pitch and roll stability making it the ultimate ocean off-roader.
This hydrofoil arrangement is inherently stable and does not require the use of active control systems. The forward canard hydrofoil provides immense reserves of lift that prevent the craft pitchpoling making it extremely seaworthy, allowing the crew to safely maintain high speeds in all conditions. C-FLY has been designed to keep on sailing fast when other performance boats would back off.
In light winds C-FLY is designed to sail in displacement mode in the same way as a conventional high performance multi-hull. This allows the performance to be optimised across the whole wind range without the drag penalty of hydrofoils in light winds. As the wind increases the foils are deployed at sea, C-FLY lifts up on to the foils and flies across the water, literally doubling its speed.
C Fly Videos
- D - CG32
- D - Flying Phantom Catamaran
The Flying Phantom is smaller but otherwise very similar to Oracle's AC72 that won the America's Cup Race in San Francisco in 2013. A new Phantom can be purchase for roughly $20,000. These photos are published with the permission of:
Head of Communications
Phantom International: www.phantom-international.com
Tel: +33 622315283
Posted by RV, 3-2014
- D - Foilingweek
Interview with Paul Bieker Oracle AC 72 Naval Architect
- D - Gerard Tisserand, France, Catamarran
M. Tisserand and his brother test this catamaran in the waters of Corsica, France. The boat has a special height finding device that has never been declosed to the public.
Photos by Gerard Tisserand, posted by R V. 6/6/2013
- D - Hobie Tri Foiler, Sailing Hydrofoil
- D - Howard Apollonio's 1967 catamaran
- D - Hydrocket
- D - HydroSail@aol.com -- Tom Hamon
- D - Hyraii
Hyraii at Saint Moritz
Hyraiiat Lake Silvaplana
- D - John Slattebo's hydrofoils
John Slattebo commercially produced his hydrofoils sailing boats in California.
Posted by RV. 6/16/2013
- D - L'Hydroptere, French
World sailing speed record holder for its class.
- D - Mac Stevens
- D - Mirabaud FX Foiler
- D - Monitor, Gordon Baker
- D - MOTH
Various Moth photos
Posted by R V 2/31/2012
Moth class association web site
Mach 2 Boats
- D - Ospray
- D - Rave Sailing Hydrofoil
The Rave hydrofoil has been out of production for eight years (136 boats were produced over a 4 year period), but Windrider still receives daily inquiries from prospective buyers.
- D - Sail Anarchy
- D - SYZ&Co
- D - Techniques Avancées
In 1986, two students of ENSTA launched the idea of creating a catamaran revolutionary, based on the principle of the foils, capable of reaching speeds up to download unimaginable for a sailboat.
Supported by the Directorate General for armaments (DGA) and the Direction of Constructions Navales (DCN), a complex technological project will gradually take shape: design a catamaran on foils to beat the world speed sailing record and demonstrate as a foiler, equipped with a rigid rig, can navigate at high speed in a stable manner.
- D - UFO
- D - Vesta
- D - Whites Dragon
The main goal was to create an easy boat, simple to transport, which can be sailed on foils instinctively, hardly different than a regular cat. Further, it had to be tremendously fast.
Design and Construction:
The two students designed and ultimately self-built this 2 person hydrofoil cat, almost exclusively of carbon fibre. Working with carbon A class hulls as a starting point, and borrowing the sail plan and mast directly from the Tornado class, they were well on their way. Simulation based design, tutored by Davide Tagliapietra, focused on flight dynamics, VPP, foil hydrodynamics (CFD) and accurate dimensioning of newly built components using Finite Element (FEA).
The choice of V (surface piercing-dl)foils, devoid of the need to actively alter the lift surface, fit the simplicity and transportability concept well. The hydrodynamics of the foil at the free surface, the limits on stability, and the impact on platform beam are the compromise.
Then they went and learned how to build a boat as well. Starting with pointers and tips from a small composite boatyard Punta Manara, they climbed the learning curve. At the end, vacuum bagging substantial components came easy. For the foils and main beam, they turned to the pros at Riba composites.
Here you see just how wide the platform is, with a trampoline 2x wider than long!
Beam 4m (!)
All up weight 125kg
Mainsail area 16.35 m2
Genneker ca. 17-20 m2
Testing and Refinement:
The project was first tested in tow in late September. Huge efforts were necessary to handle the concentrated loads on the platform induced by carrying the weight and developing the righting moment on such small areas. The tensile structure originally made of synthetic cables has been completely replaced first with steel rod and then remade with carbon straps to give rigidity.
By October the boat was sailing regularly and the results were convincing. The cat was flying high and stable on its hydrofoils, easily carrying one 75 kg person and even foiling with 160 kg of crew in 12 knots of wind. Handling was easy, just as predicted. The most recent session on Wednesday of this week saw the boat flying very smoothly and easily.
Speeds over 20 knots with only the main were achieved. Tests were carried out with two crew and the genneker, pushing the boat ever harder. With the genneker, the boat was able to fly in about 6 knots of wind. Due to a lack of instruments, the best indication so far of sailing angles is that the apparent is well forward when the boat is up. Video.
Next steps for refinement will be concentrating on proper sizing and positioning of V foil fences in order of increasing high speed performance. One of the next steps will be further sail development, a new main, and a flatter genneker is also under development.
Further the team will address the righting moment limitations of the design. In addition to double trapezing, which has not been utilized to date, the mast will be significantly canted, providing a portion of the lift, allowing for a wider stance of the foils.
Regattas such as Round Texel, Bol d’Or, Multi cento and perhaps some record runs. The boat will be at the Dusseldorf Boat Show in the new year, on display at the request of the Tornado World Champion Roland Gaebler.
- D - Williwaw by David Keiper
- E - Bates Bates Technical College American Lake,
- E - Doug Helper's Hydrofoil
Extracted from the IHS Gallery: Doug Helper's Hydrofoil built from the May 1960 issue of Popular Science, written by Herbert R. Pfister
06-26-12 - 8:30 PM
Sirs: This took me almost a year to build, as I could work on it only a few minutes each day (job, 4 kids, etc.) I went by a plan I got from your website, from the May 1960 issue of Popular Science, written by Herbert R. Pfister. I modified it a bit by using a steering wheel, rather than foot pedal steering. I named it "51" for a couple of ironic reasons... first, when I started it, the plan was 51 years old. Second, The plan was published the month and year I was born- May 1960, 51 years ago at the time. Third, the hull number of my first ship in the US Navy was AO-51 (USS Ashtabula). I tested it here in Kwajalein Lagoon. As you can see from the pictures, it worked perfectly... what a fast ride! It uses an old 15 HP Johnson 2-cycle outbard engine. I created all parts myself, including the throddle.
Thanks, and take care.
Kwajalein, Marshall Islands
- E - Dragonfly
- E - Dynafoil
Todd & Tory Miller, Scott Smith, Sam Andy and other perform on this commercially produced PWC hydrofoil first marketed about 1997.
The video also shows the WetBike in action as well as the Dynafoil. The WetBike is not a hydrofoil, but more like a motor powered water ski. Notice the front planing surface uses springs and shock absorbers to smooth the ride.
More photos at:
Posted by RV. 6/6/2013
- E - Evolo Electric PWC Hydrofoil
The origin of this fanciful hydrofoil PWC is not remembered. My apologies to the creator. It looks like a sexy design but I see one thing missing: propulsion. Details, details. I added the ailerons thinking there may be a roll control problem.
Posted by R V. 5/29/2013
Evolo Electric PWC Video
Evolo Electric PWC Video
Evolo Electric PWC Video
- E - Formation Flying
PMH 2, Hercules, passes Ray Vellinga on Hifybe (with a little help from Paint Shop Pro).
- E - Futuristic Foils
- E - Guillermo Sureda Burgos
Designs by the Italian designer, Guillermo Sureda Burgos.
See more photos and text at http://www.sureda.org/
- E - Hi Foil, British Hydrofoil PWC
Hi Foil was a promising hydrofoil PWC that went on the market in the late 1960s. It was a lucky thing that I was passing through England at the time the inventors were doing final testing. They offered to let me pilot one around the bay, and it was a genuine thrill. Why they did not stay in production for many years, I do not know. Even today there are several hidden away in garages around the USA and perhaps the UK . Perhaps it was an idea before its time.
Click on the 5 videos to see her fly.
The videos were created by B.J. Meinhard and Elliot James
Ray Vellinga 5/30/2013
- E - Hifybe, early experiments with surface piercing aft foil & two front foils
This is an early version of the High Flying Banana, Hifybe. This served as a testbed for the trials of several components and configurations.
Two versions of the front foil are shown. One is surface piercing with an upper and a lower component.
The other is a submerged version that provides for manual changing of the angle of attack, AOA. This of course changes the lift and allows the pilot to respond quickly to changes in bow height and pitch. The center of pivot was place low to reduce the stick pressure and minimize the effort required to fly the bow.
Neither version performed satisfactorily.
The rear foil supports about 80% of the weight and it was assigned the task of roll stability. Coupling the roll stability with the main lifting foil is a good thing. But the surface piercing foil tends to ventilate, and the configuration may not be wide enough to be sufficiently effective.
Some radical configuration changes were played with. The rigg was turned around so that the surfaced-piercing V foil was mounted up front and the manual AOA small submerged foil was mounted at the stern. The appearance while flying could be attractive because the bow extended way forward of the front foil giving a cantilever look. But the problems with the surface-piercing main foil persisted and manual control of height and pitch is a game of skill that is fatiguing and requires concentration. This type of pitch/height control is only effective at low speeds, in my experience, regardless of whether the pitch/height control is at the bow or the stern.
Later versions of Hifybe with a submerged rear foil with ailerons coupled with a automatic height-finding front foil was successful, and can be seen in a later album and on Youtube: go to 'Ray Vellinga' channel and select the appropriate thumbnail.
Hifybe and its photos by Ray Vellinga. Posted 6/7/2013
- E - Jan Gielen's design
Super yacht by Jan Gielen. Check out his web site.
- E - Kormoran
For more information go to:
- E - Looker 350 by Paritelboat
This is a Russian glass bottom sight seeing hydrofoil boat. See video:
Glass bottom boat Made by Paritetboat model: LOOKER 350
Looker is based on tenerife at Puerto Colon. Its area of operation is between Tenerife and La Gomera.
See this video:
For more including posible purchase information, go to :
- E - Manta Foil by * Gresham, Steve Gresham, and Gavin Cawood
There is a video available for viewing:
This boat was for sale on the internet. Research is needed. More to follow.
Posted by R V 5/31/2013
- E - Mauun
- E - Pablo Gaviria & Class, Latin America
This is a student project in latin America, 2008.
Photos by Pablo Gaviria, Posted by RV 6/7/2013
- E - Praying Mantis, Steve Ball So Calif, 2012- 2013,
- E - Quatrofoil
To learn more about this commercial enterprise go to:
Posted by RV, 6/7/2013Quadrofoil Web Site
- E - Speedy Gonzo
Various still shots of Speedy Gonzo, designed, built and photographed by Ray Vellinga 7/2/2013
- E - Sportfoil
- E - Stevensen ???
- E - UFO
- E - VIDEOS -- Hifybe, High Flying Banana
YouTube Video: HYDROFOIL -- CRAZY FLYING BANANA with Bow Camera. Ray Vellinga 150727 1-2
YouTube Video: HYDROFOIL -- Breathtaking 1st Flight of Hifybe. Ray Vellinga 150727 2-2
Hifybe, or High Flying Banana, is a windsurfer board with submerged hydrofoils. It is powered by a 6 HP long shaft Suzuki engine.
The photos are to be edited.
- E - Xiaokang wan, VIDEO click on it, Hong Kong,
I'm a fan of hydrofoils and have brought a book: hydrofoils design build fly.
Now I'm a engineer of epropulsion, which is devoted to develop electirc outboard.
You can visit at www.epropulsion.hk
- E - Yamaha/Horiuchi OU32
OU32 Discovery Channel Video
- E- WFOIL, Crocco
- F - Solar Powered
- F - Solar Powered Boat in Race, Cedarville Univ.
From Professor Timothy Dewhurst, Cedarville University:
Attached are some pictures of boats we competed against in the Netherlands in 2012. They had foils, we did not. Both were faster than us, but we beat one anyway over the 5 day race, and the other burned out its motors. We were the top university in the race (third place overall) and we competed in the top class.
Ray's comments: As a result of this competition and and the work in preparation, a fine technical paper 'Solar Splash Technical Report' was generated:
The next solar powered boat race in Netherlands will be in June 2014. There is talk about Cedarville U entering their first hydrofoil. They are also considering entering the competition for the IHS Mandles Prize. Let's hope they win the $2,500 Prize as well as the Solar race.
- F - V20 Solar Powered
Monte Carlo Race
- G - Guillermo Sureda Burgos X S 100, Underwater
Designed by Guillermo Sureda Burgos
For more photos and description go to Mr. Burgos' website:
- H - Early foils
- I - Curt Heinrick and Peter Turner built this SportFoil designed by Mike Stevenson.
- I - Bentley Yachts
- I - Dolphin
- I - Dwight Filley's TWO Air Screws 2008-2010
Dwight Filley created two hydrofoils propelled by a human-powered airscrew. Neither flew well and the air screw was a danger to the pilot. Of course the performance was dominated by prevailing winds. The project was abandoned in favor of water-screw propelled hydrofoil boats.
Photos taken by Ray Vellinga 5/31/2013
- I - Foils, Aft only--tests and Anaysis
After watching the videos of premature flight termination, here is what the team concluded as a possible explanation and solution to the problem.
In video 091353 at 18sec of 5:25 minutes can can observe the formation of a wingtip vortex. In the audio, Dwight comments about its formation. The vortex is visible as vaporized water (like steam) and the condition is known as cavitation. Cavitation can occur at low speeds at high angles of attack (AOA), or low AOA at high speeds >40 mph or so.
This, it is thought is the result of upward wing tip deflection due to structural flexibility limits being exceeded.
When the tip is deflected upwards, it twists without directional predictability. For the brief time that the vortex is seen it is twisting to increase the AOA. When lift is lost and there is no vapor trail, the twist is in reducing the AOA.
Static testing will demonstrate the foil's flexibility. If the main foil supports 300 lbs and the outboard section is 25% of the span, that section supports 75 lbs. If one pushes 75 lbs. upward uniformly across the outboard section it will deflect upward, I predict. There is no reason to believe that the AOA at the tip will remain constant as the foil is deformed upward. So as load is applied, you will experience dramatic variations in AOA, cavitation, and lift.
The solutions are:
1. Beef up the foil section with additional wraps of carbon fiber and resin (simplest solution). See fiber orientation in #3 below.
2. Rebuild foil with taper (narrow at the tips, wide at the root).
3. Rebuild the foil using upper fiber orientation with fibers crossing the line running from tip to tip at 45 degrees. The fibers will intersect at 90 degrees. The underside of the foil should have the fibers running from tip to tip.
The center section may deflect as well causing further fluctuations in total lift.
Boat designed, built and piloted by Dwight Filley, California
Videos By Jim Bixby, California
Written and posted by Ray Vellinga, 6/29/2013
- I - Foiltwister
- I - HAWC
Hydrofoil Assisted Water Craft
- I - High Flying Banana, hifybe, by Ray Vellinga
- I - HYCAT Marine, Paulsbo, Wa
- I - Hyfibe, Early Experiment w Surface Piercing Main Forward
- I - Hyfibe, Surface Piercing Rear Foil
- I - HYSU Cat USA
HYSU Cat = Hydrofoil Supported Catamaran
HYSU Cat USA
- I - HYSU CAT Catamaran Hydrofoils
HYSU Cat = Hydrofoil Supported Catamaran
- I - HYSU Cat NZ
HYSU Cat = Hydrofoil Supported Catamaran
HYSU Cat NZ
- I - HYSU Taxis
HYSU Cat = Hydrofoil Supported Catamaran
HYSU Water Taxis
- I - HYSUCAT
HYSU Cat = Hydrofoil Supported Catamaran
- I - HYSUCraft
Hydrofoil Supported Catamaran
- I - John Payne,HYSU CAT - Hydrofoil assist catamaran
- I - Luerrsen Prototype
- I - Motor Powered, Small, TO BE PLACED IN ALBUMS
- I - Ray Vellinga's Hifybe w Shutt Strut Forward
Hifybe, or High Flying Banana, is a windsurfer board with submerged hydrofoils. It is powered by a 6 HP long shaft Suzuki engine. There are links to several videos in the video section of this Phanfare collection of albums.
- I - Rinspeed, Hydrofoil Car.
- I - Rod Muller, Australia
Video of Rod flying
Excerpts from email exchange with Ray Vellinga, IHS:
Attached are some pictures of progress so far, she is 14 foot long 4 foot wide and will be driven by a 40 hp 3 cylinder Suzuki car engine via a custom made deep leg stern drive with power transmission via timing belt made from a chunk of yacht mast,
I was just going the buy a 30hp long leg Tohatsu outboard and get the extra leg extension for it but that is not much of a challenge.
I have also acquired a couple electric actuators because in the first instance I was going to make the front foil variable.
I have got the plans for the Sportfoil boat and some other stuff and ofcourse you book is the bible.
My goal at present is to finish the hull, the stern drive, engine installation and some other stuff to establish her weight before I got serious about making the foils.
I am an engineering patternmaker by trade and have recently retired from my business www.strathsteam.com so have almost unlimited
I still have not made a decision yet whether to go surface piercing or canard.
My question for you if I may, I can buy these extruded Ali foils they sell for making wind generators, I have looked at them fairly closely, although they have a fair bit of reverse scalloping on the underside I think they may do the job what are your thoughts.
First up I spoke to the guy with the extruded airfoil sections a few month ago and he answered with this:-
T6061 material standard
Same profile with easier end cap mounting (relates to PVC extrusion you can see on that website)
My weight is 80kg
25mm... deflection and that length I am standing on is 5 foot
And... NO... there is no trickery , these blades are strong and quiet , they do not need solid bar to strengthen , a good heavy wall tube min 50% of the blade . (That relates to use for a wind generator and no there is no tube in it)
I have not made up my mind about configuration but it will be a 4 poster I want to be able to drop the actuator arm of the front foil so I can fold it up towards the bow to make it easy to put on and off the trailer (see picture of trailer)
I have been concentrating on the stern drive leg which I finished machining the internals of the lower drive housing and perhaps tomorrow I will make the front seal carrier/bearing retainer and then the conical cap leading to the propeller hub and maybe begin the SS prop shaft, in one of the pictures you can see a prop I thought may do the job it does not have much pitch but the Suzuki engine can run up to 6 to 7000 rpm and it is a 1 to 1 drive so it may be suitable. I am facing the prop forward.
I had a look at it and a heap more stuff on the photo site in particular found a web site with some good pictures of Bras D OR
so as you can see from the pictures have taken the "plunge" (metaphoically speaking ofcourse I dont need to do any swimming) to run with a similar layout for the foils as the FHE 400, what a buzz that would have been to go for a ride on, especially at 60 plus knots.
The front foil is 8 inches wide across the chord and a total length of 72 inches while the rear main foils are 10 inches wide by 74 inches long with a take off foil that is 48 inches long by 8 inches wide. I reckon the boat will weigh in at around 1000 with me and fuel.
The masking tape shows where the extra struts will go and they will add to the lift aswell.
I have a feeling it will be over foiled but as you said you can always cut them down, my only comment at this point is " there are soooo many variables" I guess you just have to draw a line in the sand and start from there.
I am using 1 inch ply for prototyping as I think I could waste a bucket of money on Ali, I managed to get all the foil stuff out of one sheet of 8 X 4 foot 1 inch ply.
A tiny question for you "am I trying to fly to high to start with" and am I dicing with danger? I am a careful test driver/pilot and will take it extra quietly to start with. I can easily lower the foils at this time and just leave the legs standing above the deck line till a later date.
October 1, 2013
Well the project started in early April and she flew in early October (6 months) much to my great pleasure and relief.
I have been having sleepless nights over the past week fretting over whether it was going to work and finally today although it was still a bit windy I figured it was safe enough to go for a fly so I arranged with a friend to back me up with another boat and took her down to the river.
I had an opportunity to borrow an 8 horsepower long leg Mariner Sailpower outboard which I wondered a bit, if it had the grunt to get her out of the water, to my surprise she lifted out with ease mind you pretty sloppy flying technique to start with and a few unceremonious crashes back into the water till I worked out where to sit and just how far I could lift her out before the prop lost its grip and she nose dived. I havent even dared to think about turning a corner at full speed yet I think my blood pressure would have been off the planet as I backed away from the jetty and the adrenalin was rushing freely for the first few minutes, but there is plenty of time for that yet.
This outboard is a bit daft as all my other outboards you can lock the leg down manually but this one will only lock down when you engage reverse gear so it gets cranky when she starts to hoot along but not much more than about 18 kilometers per hour on the GPS before it looses the plot.
I took a few big greenies over the bow at times and as we don't have a front deck yet, that was a bit uncomfortable but now I know I heaps more about where I am headed I can concentrate on sorting out many more things relating to the whole boat and finishing the set up of the trailer.
I can now understand how you broke your nose when Sabre Foil took a dive at high speed and you broke your nose, hell, it is like you hit a brick wall and then all of a sudden you have an engine running at high power suddenly grips when the transome drops back in the water and tries to smash the back out of the boat as you accelerate forward at a rapid rate.
Anyway just great great fun I can see it being a special summer this year and Wow as you say the moment you lift the hull clear of the water surface she takes off like a rocket.
We must have a long and serious chat soon to get some advice from you as it is doing what I thought it would, in the fact it is "overfoiled", gets out of the water quite quickly and perhaps has too much lift that is to say "it works too well".
I sincerely thank you Ray for your advice, support and your great book.
Here are some pictures of the fitting of the suzuki engine and rear leg.
As you can see I have strengthened the transom considerably as with the 8 hp outboard it was making cracking noises so hopefully this will be much stronger. I have had to put a pad on the transom so I can fold the leg up to one side or vertical for towing the boat down to the river as there is literally no road clearance when it is in the running positon, the vee shape sheet of aluminium which coveres up the water inlet pipe on the forward facing section of leg would have been hitting the wood.
I am waiting on the belt people to run my numbers through their computer to give me the belt tension figures so I can pack the bearings out, then I can drill the holes in the transom, mount the leg properly and couple it to the engine.
I have searched through my junk and found a forward control unit of an outboard a steering wheel, cables , pulleys etc so that is another job that can move on as well.
Notes taken from Rod's video:
Published on Oct 8, 2013.
This is my first attempt at a hydrofoil which came together with the help of Ray Vellinga's book on Hydrofoils, some plans entitled The Sportfoil along with endless hours of looking at internet info and watching Youtube clips and then rolling all the ideas together to come up with what you see.
Her name is TOPPY which is Japanese for flying fish and there is a fleet of Boeing 929's Hydrofoils that work out of Kagoshima all called TOPPY 1 to 8 that were built under licence by Kawasaki.
It is by no means finished as it is powered by an elderly Mariner 8hp long leg outboard which limits its flying height at approx. 8 to 10 inches (200 to 250 mm) before the prop comes out of the water and causes her to crash back onto the surface. I was amazed at how easily she gets up on the foils and flies and on this day we put a second adult on board along with an extra 40 litres of water which just made it go faster as one had to apply more power to get it to fly and hence higher prop revs with increased speed but certainly no even close to flat out.
The next step is to fit it with an old Suzuki Alto car engine and a specially made deep leg stern drive which utilizes a timing belt drive down inside a chunk of yacht mast with a forward facing prop.
At present it will do about 25 kilometres an hour and I think it is over foiled as it creates too much lift with the boat 1200mm wide (4 feet) and 14 foot long the front foil chord is 200mm wide (8 inches) and the back foil the same for about 500mm (20inches) but then the foils going out to the struts widen out to 250 mm (10 inches), as I make changes and additions I will put up some more video clips.
November 7, 2013:
Here are some progress pictures of what I have been up to,
I epoxied the inside of the hull where the engine fits and painted it so I could fit the engine.
Made a sort of wind screen come water deflector and incorporated the steering box mount and
will be the dash board for switches and gages.
Installed the steering wheel and cable but yet to hook it up to the rudder shaft.
Installed an old Suzuki outboard remote control and made a cable adapter for carby cable.
Brought together a new (old stock) muffler to the engine.
Fitted the wiring loom but not wired to anything yet.
Bolted the leg on and aligned the drive shaft, although still temporary as the transmission people
have not come up with the tension figures for the belt yet. ( hopeless bunch,manufacturers that is)
Cut all the keyways and fitted the HRC coupling.
Ran the engine for a little bit as no cooling system yet to see how quiet the muffler was.
As you can see I got the wiring done enough so I can start the engine without using jumpers .
I have pulled the steering box back out and spent about 2 hours on it replacing the substandard plastic bushings supplied by the Indian manufacturers with some of my own with much higher tolerances.
I have been agonizing about the problem of ground clearance on the leg and foils when the boat is trailered, trying to think up some method of either getting to leg to clear the ground and had ideas of scissors type jacks or hydraulic ram etc. but a friend of mine said why not winch it up ( the man is a genius) so with considerable thought and testing I came up with a system that can pull it up to give me plenty of ground clearance when I tow it down to the river then winch it up a bit take out the chocks and lower it back down to launch.
I can lower the foils right down to the design level and still not have them hit the road but it may be a while before we I get to drill some more holes and drop them to try it could be a bit scary
I am yet to try it but I am confident it will work although I wish I had bought the bigger capacity winch as I had no idea I would use the little one for such an arduous task I think I shall replace it with a higher capacity, lower ratio one.
Anyway there are many little sorting out jobs to do now, I finally got the figures to tension the timing belt so that has been done and it seems to run almost totally silent.
I trust you are well and speedy is looking good i thought you might like an update on progress.
The weather has been too cold and windy of late and I have been taking it a bit slower while recovering from my little health issue I had finished installing the car engine in the boat along with the leg, steering, electrical wiring and other associated equipment and took it out for a test run today.
The weather wasn't the best a bit too windy for a comfortable run but we got in a few good rides.
The major problem in the first instance it the rudder is far to small and the boat just does not want to respond so I could barely turn even with the boat sitting on its bottom.
I shall overcome this problem to start with by bolting a bigger sheet of Ali to the rudder and drop it down below the lowest part of the leg so it is in the clear water stream from the prop.
The other problem was its riding characteristics very unstable by comparison with the outboard.
The reasons I thought I should sit much further up front to compensate for the heavy engine but this was wrong because we are still getting heaps of lift from the big back foil which is tipping the boat forward with the slightest disturbance and she plunges back down with a big splash because the angles of attack get all out of whack.
With the outboard engine it was very stable as the back foil was controlling the front I get the distinct impression I must shift my seating position aft more to the center of the boat which is what you say in your book it is funny that the boat sits well in the water with almost a parallel water line but this I can see is wrong it is all about surface areas of foils in flight and how much lift the generate.
Anyway I wont bore you with my rambling.
We took a video but it only ran for a couple of minutes as the camera battery went flat but here are some stills.
We had a bit of fun and I was happy with the engines power the radiator kept it at a good temperature and the propeller pitch seemed okay you have to give a fair amount of grunt to get up out of the water which I think is due the big fat leg but once you pop up she takes off like the proverbial cut cat although I got fairly wet.
Here are the pictures of the latest modifications.
A much bigger rudder surface area with a bit extra down in the the flow of the water coming off the prop.
Shifted the seat, steering wheel and throttle control back about 3 feet
Made a couple of GOPRO camera mounting points so I can see what is going on during flights,
Dec 5, 2014:
The pictures of the chopper blades look really nice it will certainly be interesting to see how effective they are.
Hey it is really great to be able to talk to you as well Ray I can tell there are so few people who know much about hydrofoils in Australia you give me invaluable inf. and support.
Here are some pictures of the Sportfoil as she is today.
A great little craft easy to fly handles well very very economical, talk about run on the smell of an oily rag.
The name as you can imagine is a play on words relating to the fact the importance of a hydrofoil needing to be able to get it up (so to speak).
I have put numbers on the pictures in case you have any questions relating to it and I was interested to hear your thoughts on a couple of things.
I have spent ages looking at the picture gallery of Bras d Or which has a front foil with wings at 90degrees the sportfoil front foil is 90 degrees but when I made mine the included angle is about 120 degrees.
I downloaded the patent of the man who used to make the bolt on foil kits back in the 1960 and he started out with about 120 degrees but his last design was such that the bottom half of the front foil that was in the water at high speed was a 90 degree angle and then spread out to about 120 for take off and he thought this was really good
Here is a selection of pictures of the craft at present you can see from the black race tape covering up the bolt holes I have lowered the foils by 3 inches to increase my ride height to 15 inches
I have cut the section of foil out that used to join the back foil system through the center in an attempt to loose lift so I could drive it faster without coming out of the water.
This worked I could only get about 28 to 29 kilometers per hour before but now we are up to 34 and the engine is right on its redline so I must get a new course pitch prop sometime I have one picked out.
Important thing at present is to sort out stability problem as I described on the phone which as you confirmed sounded like serious ventilation.
I took the take off wing back out again as it was upsetting my take off characteristics and it really was not necessary as with out it she climbs out of the water quite quickly anyway.
I have raised the engine 2 1/2 inches so there is not so much leg in the water as I got the feeling it was part of the instability problems and was causing drag.
I have begun to modify the foil section already as you can see and I shall do the back ones as well but not quite the same as the Clark Y to start with as that will require some substantial filling to get it right and I may make some new foils but we will think about that for a bit to incorporate the 2 angles in the front foil like the kit set I mentioned.
Anyway important thing at present is to lessen the ventilation problem.
- I - Sabre-Foil, Ray Vellinga,
- I - Sea Wings, Grumman
This hydrofoil boat was commercially produced. the photos come from an individual attempting to sell this classic. Anyone having additional information, please submit it to the Dropbox.
Posted by RV, 6/15/2013
- I - Slatabo, John
- I - Stevenson's Sportfoil Plans
From the Stevenson Projects website with permission:
The Sportfoil is a very unique boat project: There aren't many home-built hydrofoil plans around — Even after forty years!
When we designed the orignal Sportfoil back in the early '70's, hydrofoils were actually more common than today. We started out with an experimental sailing hydrofoil, remarkably. Making a sailing hydrofoil is pretty tricky, and this very simple construction was only able to get on foil in certain conditions and couldn't tack, so we switched to a powered version: The Sportfoil was the result! Because this is such a lightly-loaded hydrofoil, we can use very small outboards (5-15hp.) and still have great performance. The America's Cup (which is on as we write this!) is showing the world just what sailing hydrofoils are capable of, in the most amazing and exciting ways! The Sportfoil is an older design, but is a good starting point to discover what it's like to fly a boatThese plans are belived to be out-of-print. To find out more, contact the publishers at:
10366 Roselle St. Suite D
San DIego, CA 92121
Our Telephone Number is:
To send us E-Mail:
Our Fax Number is:
Posted by RV,1/8/2015
- I - Talaria IV by Harry Larsen
Video with Electronic height control
Video with mechanical height control
Click picture to enter
- I - Tom Lang's Garage -- SWATH
Thomas G. Lang, Ph.D. is considered by many to be the world's leading authority on SWATH, Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull Ships. Tom holds 8 patents on SWATH innovations.
On July 30, 2015, I visited Tom at home in Solana Beach, California, and he showed me his personal 6 passenger SWATH. It is the first and possibly only PLANING SWATH.
Although SWATHs are not strictly hydrofoils, they do often incorporate small stabilizing horizontal foils in their design.
There are about 50 ships in operation around the world. The largest is the cruise ship Radison Diamond with 375 passengers. The design is said to be the steadiest of all hull designs, except perhaps submerged hydrofoils.
Although SWATHs are not strictly hydrofoils, they do incorporate small stabilizing horizontal foils in their design.
Also shown are some of the few remaining of his hydrofoil kits from his former company Up-right Hydrofoils. About 80 of these kits were sold in the 1960s. Ironically, I was offered a used kit for sale by an acquaintance in Elgin, Illinois, about 1960. At the time I did not have the $300 asked.
Boeing bought a kit and used it on its chase boat for the FRESH 1 jet powered hydrofoil test bed. The US Navy bought one to test in Viet Nam waters during the war.
- I - Tom Lang, Up Right Hydrofoil
- I - Twin Vee
- I - Volga
Volga / Molnia Hydrofoils
You Tube videos
Strela from SeaTech ltd
CUSTOM HYDROFOIL RUNABOUT – VOLGA 70
- I - Wynne-Gill
Maritime Flight I
This 4-seater hydrofoil was offered to the public by Wynne-Gill of Miami FL about 1970. Awaiting the delivery of photos.
- I -- David Thomas
- K - Aliscoafo, Italian Passenger carrying
Aliscoafo, Credit to Dolloresso, Italy
- K - Austalian Ferrys submited by Chris Verdich
FROM CHRIS VERDICH
- K - BOEING JET FOIL
Boeing Hydrofoil Site
- K - Classic Fast Ferries
- K - Dolphin
- K - Frecciz D'Oro
- K - Gary Fry's PT-20, Manu Wai
Contributed by Martin Grimm, IHS member. Unedited comments:
As you requested, I am testing the "Drop Box" feature by passing on some images of Rodriquez PT20 "Manu Wai" currently owned by IHS member Garry Fry in Sydney, Australia. It was originally delivered to New Zealand where it spent most of its life. After being completely refurbished into a VIP configuration in New Zealand, it ran aground on a sand bank.
Thereafter, it was obtained by Garry Fry and several partners and shipped to Sydney, with foils removed, as deck cargo. It was repaired in Sydney before being operated as a charter boat. As this operation was not profitable, the craft has been maintained in a laid-up state for many years and is currently available for sale.
Most of the photos I will upload are from an EBay advertisement Garry posted some months ago. I know Garry well so there are no problems with posting these images. In fact, he would be pleased with any additional publicity that could be generated for his fine example of a surviving PT20.
Regards, Martin Grimm, contact: email@example.com
- K - Olympia Jaanika at Helsinki & Tallinn
The Feodosia Shipbuilding Association (Morye) built Olympia hydrofoil 'Jaanika' was one of two of this type built. The other was named 'Laura'. The builder was located in the Ukraine.
The bulk of these photos were taken on 3 June 2007 both in Helsinki in Finland and Tallinn in Estonia and in transit between both cities. The hydrofoil was operated by Linda Line Express in parallel with the Austal Ships built catamaran 'Merilin'. While I was excited to take a ride on this large hydrofoil, the old part of the city of Tallinn was a most lovely place to visit, even if I only allowed myself a very short day return trip! Some time not too long after this, 'Jaanika' was sold to another operator and the company then exclusively operated catamarans.
The first Olympia, 'Laura' was introduced on the Helsinki to Tallinn route in 1993 while 'Jaanika' was delivered in 1994.
Overall Length = 43.3m
Hull Beam = 8.4m
Foil Width = 14.0m
Hullborne Draft = 4.6m
Foilborne Draft = 2.6m
Displacement (min) = 103 t
Displacement (max) = 135 t
Passenger Capacity = 200
Fuel Capacity = 6 t
Water Capacity = 2 t
Propulsive Power = 4000 kW
Propulsion Engines = 2x MTU 16V 396 TE 74L providing
2000 kW each at 2000 RPM
Gearboxes: 2x ZF BW 755S reverse reduction each driving
a fixed pitch propeller via inclined shaft.
Operational Speed = 35 knots
Range = 300 Nautical Miles
Operational Limitation = 3.5m wave height, Beaufort 7.
Hull Structure = Aluminium
Reason I have included so many detailed photos is that perhaps someone will be inspired to build an accurate scale model (including interior!) of this well presented hydrofoil...
- K - Paritetboat
Marketed by Paritetboat
Also Looker25 and Looker320
See there web site:
Paritetboat Web Site
- K - Passenger Carrying Hydrofoils
Posted by RV 6/1/2013
- K - Raketa
- K - Russian Hydrofoils
Russian Hydrofoil Page
Descriptions of Russian Passenger Hydrofoils
- K - Seaworld
- K - UFO
- M - AGEH-I USS PLAINVIEW
- M - Babochka USSR
Letter to the Editor (or comment on Blog)
Aviation Week & Space Technology
Dear Mr. Fabey:
This is in response to your article “NavWeek: Speed Quest”. You state the following, referencing David Rudko’s March 2003 thesis, “Logistical Analysis of the Littoral Combat Ship,” prepared for the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California:
“Then came the Pegasus class missile hydrofoils. “The initial concept was to establish a squadron of missile hydrofoils, each carrying a different modular weapons package, capable of functioning collectively as one multi-mission conventional warship.”
He points out, “Due to the inability to incorporate a modular weapons capability into the missile hydrofoil design, the squadron concept never came to fruition and the missile hydrofoil’s limited role was not in keeping with the Navy’s emphasis on multi-purpose ships that were more adaptable to the full spectrum of naval operations.”
In fact, the above commentary on the PHM 1 (PEGASUS) Class missile hydrofoils is inaccurate. The following discussion will shed some light on the background for the PHM Program and its very successful operational history. I should begin by noting that the initial concept was not based on different PHMs carrying different modular weapons packages. PHMs were designed for the primary mission of Surface Warfare, with self-defense capability against surface and airborne threats.
The need for a relatively small, fast ship to counter the proliferation of Soviet and Warsaw Pact missile boats, such as the Soviet hydrofoil BABOCHKA was articulated in the late 1960s by NATO’s Commander-in-Chief, Southern Command. This requirement was researched by the appropriate groups within the NATO Naval Armaments Group (NNAG) ultimately leading to a tripartite agreement between United States,the Federal Republic of Germany and Italy in 1972 , for the design, development and acquisition of the NATO PHM . This program was strongly supported by ADM Elmo Zumwalt, who was then the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO). The PHM was to play a major role in his new “high-low mix” vision for the U.S. Navy’s shipbuilding program. In November 1972, the NATO PHM Project Office and Steering Committee were formed. The USA was the lead nation for design, development, and acquisition and chaired the three-nation steering Committee. The agreed basic operational characteristics for the PHM are shown here.
Displacement: 250 Tonnes
Length: 132.9 ft
Beam: 28.2 ft (hull) 47.5 ft. (foils)
Propulsion: 1-LM-2500 (Foilborne) 2- MTU diesels (1630 hp) (Hullborne)
Crew: 4 Officers / 19 Enlisted
Foilborne Speed: 40+ knots, Sea State 0 40 knots, Sea State 5 (10 ft. significant wave height)
Hullborne Speed: 11 knots, Sea State 0
Range: 750 nm foilborne at 40 knots/1200 nm at 11 knots
Draft: 7.5 ft (foils raised) / 23ft (foils lowered)
Since the earliest days of planning, it had been expected that the ships would be utilized in the NATO Areas of Operations, primarily the Mediterranean, with occasional excursions into the North Sea and the Baltic. This planning was consistent with and responsive to the original requirement enunciated by NATO in the early ‘60s. The absence of a dedicated support ship (among other things) to accompany the PHMs on long open ocean transits, made the concept of overseas home-porting an attractive one compared to relatively frequent transits from the US to the European theater. The US Commander in Europe agreed and plans were made to homeport the ships at Augusta Bay, Sicily, which is centrally located for employment and close to NATO and US national support.. It was the desire of the US Atlantic Fleet Commander, who would retain many support functions for the ships, that a trial deployment be conducted by one
or two PHMs prior to full-scale home-porting. Delays in delivery of the production PHMs and concern about PHM 1(PEGASUS) material condition resulted in several cancelled trial deployments. PEGASUS was home-ported initially at Little Creek, VA in 1979, awaiting the arrival of her sister ships.
In 1980 her homeport was shifted to Key West Florida where she could participate in the
US Navy’s contribution to the “War on Drugs” while awaiting delivery of PHMs 2-6. The production ships and the shore-based, transportable PHM Mobile Logistic Support Group (MLSG) housed in ISO-size containers were delivered to Key West over the next three years, with the full squadron ( PHMRON TWO) being constituted in Spring of 1983.
Concurrently, the Navy put the overseas home-porting plan on indefinite hold, in order to refine the PHM logistic concept, to develop tactics and generally gain more experience with the ships. This plan was never revisited, and for the next ten years PHMs operated solely in the Caribbean, western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. In that time the ships’ operational employment was similar to other USN ships operating in these areas:
• PHMs provided a two-ship detachment for the invasion of Grenada in Operation
• Every deploying Battle Group Trained with PHMs- which were usually simulating opposition forces (e.g., Boghammars in the Persian Gulf).
• Port Visits were conducted in the Caribbean and in the US from Texas to Bar Harbor, Maine
• PHMs operated with Latin American navies and with visiting European navies
• PHMs developed and practiced fast ship tactics.
• PHMs conducted three trial deployments, San Diego to Pearl Harbor (one ship) , Puerto Rico (3 ship detachment) and Grenada (entire squadron) but never deployed out of theater.
The operations they excelled in were counter-drug operations, since the USCG WSES surface effect ships did not possess the combination of speed and seakeeping required to conduct intercepts of the small high-speed boats operated by drug runners. During their operations in the Caribbean Basin, the PHM Squadron (6 ships equating to only 3% of the Navy’s ship count) achieved the following:
• 30% of Navy-assisted “Busts” with 225,000 lbs of marijuana and 12,000 lbs of cocaine seized with a Street Value $1.2 Billion
• Received 22 Unit Awards from USCG andthis citation: PHM is: “Superior Platform… the most effective surface asset . . .” (in many counter-drug scenarios): Commander USCG District 7 (AUG ‘92)
Despite the remarkable contribution these ships had made to our national objectives, the US Navy decided in June 1992 to decommission them, citing their expense to operate. Since PHM operating costs were very modest – only about 1/3 the cost of an FFG 7, many PHM advocates believe that the six PHMs were sacrificed early in the post-cold war naval drawdown to avoid loss of an equal number of larger, more capable ships.
Whatever the motivation, the ships were decommissioned in July 1993 with at least ten years of expected service life remaining. The Navy made no concerted effort to find other utilization for them, and eventually they were sold for scrap.
These comments are offered in order to avoid any misconceptions about PHM operational requirements and in-service mission performance.
Mark R. Bebar
PHM 1 Feasibility Study Project Naval Architect (1971 – 1972)
Naval Ship Engineering Center (NAVSEC)
PHM 3 Series Design Integration Manager (1975 – 1978)
Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA)
President – International Hydrofoil Society (IHS) http://www.foils.org
- M - Bras D'Or PROTOTYPE O - R103
This is a test craft to proceed the larger Canadian Bras D'Or.
Hydrofoil R-103 - Bras D'Or
Photos from Dave Mill's web site - test photos:
- M - Bras D'Or, Canadian Military
- M - Bras d'Or, Canadian Navy Ship
Ariel photo:Courtesy Boeing Canada, de Havilland Div., Photographic Dept, 32606
Posted by RV 7-15-2013
- M - Flagstaff
- M - Flying Landing Craft
- M - Highpoint PCH-1
Naval History Web Site
Notes from Terry Orme, the owner who is presently restoring this historic war ship:
Thank you, those are some good ideas. I'll get you some pictures. Since we have obtained the ship in Nov. 05, we have actually got much done and have found some missing pieces that had been removed from the ship by it's last couple owners.
The most important procuring the original exhaust manifolds that had been removed from the ship about 6 years before we got the ship. They had been piled up in an Astoria scrap yard at the Port of Astoria. Luckily we were able to re obtain these before the soaring of metal prices as they would assuredly been scrapped. They are in complete intact condition, just some dents on the outer cooling surface from being moved around with a forklift before we got them.
The next substantial item we have procured is our Ship's Service Aux. Gen. set. We actually found an exact original (one of about 300 made) of the last operating S.S. Gen. Set. used on HP. It is a John Deere Luger Motor with 50 KW capability made by Alaska Electric in 1979. Alaska Electric had developed cooling apparatus so these JD Luger motors could be sea water cooled. HP had one installed in 1981, they are identical. Same motor type and cast. Even our Generator side is a Marathon which is superseded from Lima. The original was a Lima. What's nice about this is when reinstalled, the exhaust, cooling, and fuel lines are all in the same place as it's always easier to just reconstruct and not redesign. Resulting in a more original finished result.
I have a Perkins six cylinder 75 KW Gen. Set. that we will trade for an original Detroit Diesel 6v71 like the type used on HP. A much easier item to find. We will remove the Perkins when we install the John Deere.
HP has it's original 12v71 and outdrive / transmition.
Lastly for the larger items needed, I have had contact with the Hovercraft group in England, they have about 70 original Hovercraft. One member of this group has about 9 extra Proteus Motors. These things are considered surplus in England. So all the major parts have been found, coming or know where are.
I have started to refurbish some of the fuel system. The two main fuel pumps that draw fuel from the aft tank to distribute to the fuel system have completely been refurbished. I have also started to refurbish some fuel lines / fixtures.
I have located the microfiche and much original manuals from the last owner. So now we pretty much have all the original printed operating material. Most importantly re obtaining the diesel / fuel system manuals.
We have repaired the lifelines around the stern and Port side with original stantions of of PLAIN VIEW. Done some major paint preparation work on the deck including getting all of the non skid up. We have reinstalled some of the bunks in the crew area. Cleaned and organized.
Probably one of the most important things I have found for the ship, as you know is it's last original operating NAVY Chief Fred Nachbar and one of the Engine men that also served on HP Randy Tacey. This brings me to the point of you last inquiry. Am I geography limited? My objective is to have the ship around it original operating area and it's original people. This being said, until all other ideas are exhausted I would not consider say San Diego.
Posted by RV
- M - HMS Speedy
Jefoil Military version
- M - John Meyer's "Ships That Fly" Photos
"John Meyer has done a fantastic job in putting together a CD containing a history of modern hydrofoil ships and craft replete with innumerable photos and sketches. "Ships that Fly" is a unique contribution that will be of great use as a reference covering everything you need to know and more about modern hydrofoil development and application. It should be in the library of every naval architect, engineer, and marine historian."
Wm. M. Ellsworth, PE. (Formerly Associate Technical Director for Systems Development, David Taylor Research Center)
Included is an Addendum to CHAPTER 6. This chapter entitled: The US Navy Fleet Hydrofoil - PHM, ends with a very optimistic view of PHMs in the current US Navy, and larger hydrofoils in its future. However, this was not to be. Several years following the completion of "Ships That Fly", there were events surrounding the US Navy PHM program that should be mentioned.
All six PHM ships were decommissioned on July 30, 1993, the only time the US Navy has decommissioned an entire class of ships, on the same day. This addendum describes some of the events leading to this sad day for the US Navy and the hydrofoil community. Also, documented are the many attempts to save the Ship, the day of the ceremony, attempts to save the ships even after the decommissioning, and finally the subsequent disposal of the ships and their status today.
In addition to this 252 page book, you will receive, on the same CD, at no extra charge, a series of over 145 Hydrofoil pictures and illustrations as a Hydrofoil Slide Show, entitled: "A Century of Hydrofoil Development"
To order your copy of the CD, "Ships That Fly" along with the Hydrofoil Slide Show, for $29.95 plus $3.00 for postage and handling.
Your CD will be mailed to you promptly.
Space reserved for John's photos from his remarkable book on compact disk about the history of hydrofoils. It is available from foils.org
To order, go to:
Posted by RV 6/16/13
- M - Military German
- M - Military manuevers
- M - Military Russian
- M - MILITARY, MISCELLANEOUS
Most of these photos were contributed by Martinn Mandles and Frank Horn from their private collections.
Last edit by R V 5-29-2013
- M - PGH > Patrol Gunboat Hydrofoil Tucumcari & Friends
- M - PHM Brochure
This Brochure was prepared by Boeing Marine Systems shortly after the PHM Fleet was completed in the 1980s.
- M - PHM USN Fleet Hydrofoil
US Navy Site
For good descriptions of these boats go to IHS site:
US Navy Fleet Hydrofoil -- PHM at IHS Web Site
- M - PHM-1 Pegasus
Boeing Hydrofoil Site
Most ot these photos are from the IHS Gallery: http://www.foils.org/gallery/phm.htm
Pegasus (PHM-1) (July 9, 1977–July 30, 1993), formerly Delphinus
Hercules (PHM-2) (December 18, 1982–July 30, 1993)
Taurus (PHM-3) (October 10, 1981–July 30, 1993)
Aquila (PHM-4) (June 26, 1982–July 30, 1993)
Aries (PHM-5) (September 18, 1982–July 30, 1993)
Gemini (PHM-6) (November 13, 1982–July 30, 1993
Posted by RV. 6/12/2013
From Mark Bebar, President, IHS:
I was working PHM follow-ship design effort as part of the Navy team and as far as I know, PHM-1 did not run aground. It did experience some whale strikes and collided with a very large log ("deadhead") when foilborne in Puget Sound. The log strike did serious damage to the forward foil and kingpost/kingpost bearing. The mishap resulted in a modification of PHM-3 Series specifications to require an energy absorber at the top of the forward kingpost. The specs included a specific log strike torque, applied very near the tip of the forward foil at design speed (48 knots). The design for the absorber basically consisted of a large disk made of aluminum, with shear bolts arranged around the circumference. The bolts were designed to break in a controlled way so as to absorb the forces of the log strike and prevent loss of the forward foil and kingpost.
As far as I can recall, there was never any mystery of what happened when TUCUMCARI hit the reef.
Editor's note: Tucumcari crashed into a reef of the coast of Puerto Rico. See PGH-2 album notes for details.
- M - PHM-2 Hercules
Most ot these photos are from the IHS Gallery: http://www.foils.org/gallery/phm.htm
Text from Wikipedia:
The Pegasus-class hydrofoils were a series of fast attack patrol boats employed by the U.S. Navy. They were in service from 1977 through 1993. These hydrofoils carried the designation "PHM" for "Patrol, Hydrofoil, Missile." The Pegasus class vessels were primarily intended for green water coastal operations, such as narcotics interdiction and coastal patrol.
2 List of ships
3 See also
5 External links
In the late 1960s, NATO developed a requirement for a small, fast warship to counter large numbers of Warsaw Pact missile boats, such as the Komar and Osa class missile boats, deciding that a hydrofoil would be the best way to meet this requirement. In 1970 Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, the new Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), keen to increase the Navy's number of surface vessels in a cost-effective manner, committed the United States to the NATO program for a hydrofoil. The US Navy proposed the PHM design as a NATO standard, with the program being led by the US Navy, and an order placed for two prototypes in 1972. The Italian Marina Militare and the German Bundesmarine signed letters of intent to participate in the programme, with other NATO navies, including the Royal Navy and Canadian Forces studying the project. The US Navy planned to buy up to 30 PHMs, with 10 to be purchased by Germany and four by Italy.
After Zumwalt's retirement, the Navy chose to funnel most of the money for the PHMs into larger vessels. This delayed the ongoing construction of Pegasus, and the other vessels were not started. Congress eventually forced the Navy to complete the vessels. The difficulties in project progression forced the other involved navies to abort their participation.
The Pegasus class ships were powered by two 800 horsepower (600 kW) twin turbo-charged Mercedes-Benz diesels when waterborne using water jets giving them a speed of 12 knots. When foilborne, the ships were powered by a General Electric LM2500 gas turbine and a very large water jet giving them a speed of 48+ knots.
Pegasus ships were well armed for their size, carrying two four-rack RGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles and an Oto Melara 76 mm gun. The Harpoons, specifically, were capable of sinking far larger ships at distances in excess of 60 nautical miles (110 km). The German version would have carried the MM38 Exocet.
As Pegasus was constructed several years before the rest of the series, there are some slight differences, such as the fire-control system.
All six vessels were constructed by Boeing, in Seattle at the Renton plant at the south end of Lake Washington. They were stationed at NAS Key West.
The technology was first pioneered by the USS Tucumcari (PGH-2), where it successfully operated in Vietnam, but ultimately ran aground off Puerto Rico. It was judged to be more advanced than the Grumman Flagstaff which was built at the same time to the same requirements. The primary technology, also used in the Boeing Jetfoil ferries, used submerged flying foils with waterjet propulsion.
The ships were retired because they were not judged cost effective for their mission in a Navy with primarily offensive missions rather than coastal patrol. USS Aries PHM-5 Hydrofoil Memorial, Inc. obtained Aries for rehabilitation as a memorial located on the Grand River in Brunswick, Missouri at 39°25′15″N 93°7′47″W. All other PHMs in the class have been scrapped except for GEMINI which was converted into a yacht.
Posted by RV. 6/12/2013
- M - PHM-3 Taurus
Most ot these photos are from the IHS Gallery: http://www.foils.org/gallery/phm.htm
Posted by RV. 6/12/2013
- M - PHM-4 Aquila
Most ot these photos are from the IHS Gallery: http://www.foils.org/gallery/phm.htm
Album cover photo from: State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory, http://floridamemory.com/items/show/59988
Posted by RV. 6/12/2013
- M - PHM-5 Aries
Most ot these photos are from the IHS Gallery: http://www.foils.org/gallery/phm.htm
Posted by RV. 6/12/2013
USS Aries Museum WebSite
- M - PHM-6 Gemini
Most ot these photos are from the IHS Gallery: http://www.foils.org/gallery/phm.htm
Pegasus Class Patrol Combatant-Missile (Hydrofoil):
Laid down 13 May 1980 by Boeing Marine Systems, Seattle, Washington
Launched 17 February 1982
Commissioned 13 November 1982
Decommissioned 30 July 1993
Struck from the Navy Register 30 July 1993
Sold for scrap 19 August 1996 by the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Service.
Displacement 178 t.(lt), 248 t.(fl)
Speed 51 kts.
Armament: One 76mm gun mount and eight AGM-84 Harpoon missiles
Propulsion: Two 1,600bhp Mercedes-Benz marine diesels (Hullborne) and one 18,000shp General Electric LM2500 gas turbine (Foilborne), two water jets.
Posted by RV. 6/12/2013
- M - SHIMRIT Class Israeli Military Hydrofoils
Provided by Mark Bebar, IHS:
The Israeli hydrofoils (SHIMRIT Class), designed by Grumman and based on the PGH-1 FLAGSTAFF design, have been out of service for 20 years.
Shimrit Class Missile Hydrofoils
Shimrit - Laid up 1993
Livnit - Laid up 1993
Sanpirit - Laid up 1993
Displacement: 71t light; 103-105t full load Armament: 4 Harpoon SSM (2*2), 2 Gabriel III SSM (2*1), 2-30mm Oerlikon TCM30 (1*2), 2-12.7mm MG (2*1)
For more, go to: http://www.worldnavalships.com/israeli_navy.htm
The hydrofoil with the largest radome is the Israeli SHIMRIT (based on PGH-1 FLAGSTAFF) designed and built (one ship designed and first ship built by Grumman in the US and a second built in Israel as I recall
Posted by RV. 6/19/2013
- M - slide show all 130909ww
- M - Sparviero Italian Navy
Sparviero & Nebbio Class shown.
Posted by RV with advice from Mark Bebar 7/3/2013
- M - Tucumcari PGH-2
Nav Source Web Site
Dropped off by Martin Grimm and Bill WhitePGH-2 Tucumcari
Photos or other images and data for PGH-2 Tucumcari from various publications. Assume these are all originally from USN / Boeing and OK to include on website. Some are fuzzy. One is wheelhouse of the Italian derivative of Tucumcari, Sparviero.
POSTSCRIPT: JANUARY 1981 ISSUE OF SEA CLASSICS MAGAZINE
Martinn Mandles Attachment 7/25/15 Keep this message at the top of your inbox Photos
To: firstname.lastname@example.org Cc: email@example.com
Outlook.com Active View
3 attachments (total 2.0 MB)
Click for Options
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Download all as zipSave all to OneDrive
SEE ANNOTATIONS BELOW:
From: Ray Vellinga
To: Martinn Mandles ; mark Bebar#2 ; Ray Vellinga
Sent: Sat, Jul 25, 2015 12:29 pm
Subject: RE: POSTSCRIPT: JANUARY 1981 ISSUE OF SEA CLASSICS MAGAZINE
The photo has been uploaded to Phanfare. Later, time permitting, I will put it into the Tucumcari album.
I would post the other article as well: " article in the May 1980 issue (attached) ", but the attachment did not reach me. Please try again, ATTACHED, AGAIN!
I don't know what to do about the inaccurate details written. Are you saying that points 1-4 , below, indicate inaccurate reporting? Reporting sure must be easier without fact checking.
Date: Mon, 20 Jul 2015 17:51:47 -0400
To: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
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Subject: POSTSCRIPT: JANUARY 1981 ISSUE OF SEA CLASSICS MAGAZINE
Dear Mark and Ray: Attached is the "passing mention and an illegible and undated photo" of TUCUMCARI's hulk that I referred in my previous email. I also read this issues cover story on the Navy's then "new and improved 65-foot PB" (for pretty bad?) that reads as though it was -- even with its "teeth"/guns -- a very poor substitute for the PT (very good), the PTF (much better), or the PGH TUCUMCARI (the very best)! Martinn
To: mbebar ; rvell
Cc: barney.c.black ; joelroberts ; jbillin3 ; dapatch ; w.hockberger ; whitewn ; aliscafi ; sa_ihs_1980 ; franknjack ; htlarsen ; william.weidle ; georgejj ; bryant
Sent: Mon, Jul 20, 2015 1:42 pm
Subject: SEA CLASSICS MAGAZINE: "INTELLIGENT AND INTELLIGENCE" OR SO THEY SAY!
Dear Mark and Ray:
The May 1980 issue of Sea Classics made some claims that are disputed here:
1. I did NOT know that Pegasus ran aground in August of 1979 (when she was the one and only PHM on active duty) , for which her skipper was relieved of his command, and which cost the Navy $750,000 and several months to repair; THAT MIGHT BE TRUE, BUT IT'S ALL NEWS TO ME, EVEN AT THIS LATE DATE!
2. I did NOT know that the Navy seriously considered building as many as 50 PHMs; MAYBE, BUT THAT'S ALSO NEWS TO ME -- 12 WAS THE LARGEST NUMBER I EVER HEARD MENTIONED.
3. I did NOT know that, in May of 1980, there was still any mystery as to what became of TUCUMCARI after running aground on November 16, 1972, and being out-of-service from then until she was "stricken" from the Navy's inventory on November 7, 1973 and "scrapped" very soon thereafter (at least according to Wikipedia); and finally TO THE BEST OF MY SECOND-HAND KNOWLEDGE, THERE WAS NEVER ANY "MYSTERY".
4. I did NOT know that TUCUMCARI's grounding in 1972 was attributable to her striking some "big floating logs" -- "off the Virginia coast"! I always, but perhaps mistakenly, blamed a coral reef adjacent to the coast of Vieques Island, Puerto Rico. TO THE BEST OF MY SECOND-HAND KNOWLEDGE (AND THE OTHER TWO ATTACHMENTS TO THIS EMAIL) IT WAS "CORAL OF CABALLO BLANCO OFF VIEQUES" NOT "LOGS OFF VIRGINIA" (UNLESS THE NAVY HAD SOME REASON TO LIE ABOUT OR COVER UP THE CAUSE AND LOCATION) RELATED TO TUCUMCARI'S DEMISE.
by an anonymous authority
- M-PG 1-go Japanese Navy
Japanese version of Sparviero / Tucumcari
- Mutiny on The Boundary Layer 1986
- N - Aircraft with Foils
- O - 1950s - Experimental Progress
For good descriptions of these boats go to IHS site:
1950s -- A Decade of Experimental Progress IHS Web Site
Posted by RV. 2/20/2013
- O - Aqua-Jet
Boeing Aqua-Jet Hydrofoil Research Hydroplane
- O - Carl XCH-4
- O - Fresh1, Boeing Test Bed
- O - HD4 Alexander Graham Bell
The HD4 is displayed in the Baddeck museum
- O - Highpockets
HIGH POCKETS In 1951, the US Navy contracted with the Baker Manufacturing Co. of Evansville WI for two 24 ft. hydrofoils. These projects were directed by Gordon Baker, who has been described as a mechanical genius. The first of these craft, HIGH POCKETS had a surface-piercing foil configuration, i.e. four retractable "V"-foils that could be steered and rotated to allow banking into a turn. HIGH POCKETS was the first hydrofoil to embark the then Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Carney, in the summer of 1953
- O - HS Denison: B & W by Floyd Marken
Floyd Marken was a project engineer on the Dennison as well as the Dolphin, Flagstaff, and the Israeli Navy hydrofoil. He has many photos of the Dennison many of which are of when the boat ran aground in the Carolinas and lost it's foils.
He also has some photos of the Dolphin during construction at Blohm & Voss.
Additionally he has a brochure on the Dolphin that the Garrett company published, news paper articles and copies of the Grumman Plane News with articles pertaining to the Dennison.
We will add these as they become available from his son Greg Markin
This story comes to us from Anthony Clark, August 2014:
"My father, William P.O. Clarke Jr. was the captain of the Denison. He started out as a test engineer at Dynamic Developments in 1956 under Bill Carl. Dad flew the XCH-4, the XCH-6, the Sea Wings boats and Great Expectations which led to the Denison.
Dad told me he was at the controls when the Denison ran aground. She was foil born doing 55 knots or so. It was in the Cape Fear river. He started a turn at the day marker per the navigational guide. The hydrofoil turns quicker than a displacement hull. She did not side slip into the channel like a displacement hull and she ran aground. He saw it as a major command failure on his part and it bothered him until he died.
He would continue at Grumman as a contract negotiator on the L.E.M. program and the shuttle wing program.
- O - HYSWAS, Hybrid Ship Foils + Submerged body, John Meyer collection
These are vessels are called HYSWAS, Hydrofoil Small Waterplane Area Ship. It is a hybrid ship concept which combines dynamic lift and buoyancy. This provides high endurance and excellent rough water motions and speed. The photos are from the collection of John Meyer, former president of the International Hydrofoil Society. John has published these photos along with text and the complete package on CD may be purchased from the IHS site.
Also see album O - SWATH
Posted by RV 5/29/2013
- O - Little Squirt
Little Squirt was Boeing's first hydrofoil prototype. It is languishing in the open air at Boeing's Aircraft museum at Paine Field, Washington, USA,
LITTLE SQUIRT a 5,500 lb, 20 foot runabout with a stepped W-form hull designed and tested in the early to mid 1960s by Boeing to explore the idea that a waterjet could propel a hydrofoil craft. The boat used a centrifugal pump producing a flow rate of 3,600 gallons of water per minute out the stern; hence its name. The pump was powered through a reduction gear by a 425 hp Boeing gas turbine engine (at that time Boeing had such a small gas turbine as one of their product lines and anticipated wide use on trucks and small craft). Two foils were placed forward and one aft. Each foil had trailing edge flaps, but in addition, lift was controlled by changing the incidence of each foil. The flaps were used for lift augmentation during takeoff and were retracted for the foilborne cruise. The automatic control system used an acoustic height sensor to measure the distance between a fixed point on the bow of the boat to the mean, or average water surface.
I also have been told that the propulsion is by an twin centrifugal pumps and that the water is sucked at the end of the aft foil.
LITTLE SQUIRT accumulated about 110 hours of foilborne operation on Lake Washington and Puget Sound, sometimes operating in 3-foot waves. The craft achieved speeds of up to 45 knots and established the technical basis for proceeding to the waterjet propulsion designs for TUCUMCARI and subsequently the US Navy’s PHM hydrofoils, and Boeing’s commercial JETFOIL
- O - Model Tank Testing
- O - Model Testing Tanks and tows
- O - Pre 1950 Hydrofoils
Early Hydrofoils IHS Web Site Farcot and Others
- O - Prototype Hydrofoils, Various
5/29/2013 Last edit R V. Removed duplicate photos.
- O - Sea Legs
- O - UFO
- O - UNKNOWN
- O - WHITE HAWK - ultra high speed hydrofoil designed and piloted by Frank and Stella Hanning-Lee in the early 1950s
WHITE HAWK - ultra high speed hydrofoil designed and piloted by Frank and Stella Hanning-Lee in the early 1950s
For a complete explanation, go to:
- P - Quest, by Marine Applied Physics Corp
- P - Sea Flyer Hydrofoil Cat ex. SES200
Web Site and Video
Source ONR/NAVATEK 2004:
Navatek received funding from the Office of Naval Research to convert an existing Navy Surface Effect Ship (SES) to a lifting body ship. Work on this project began in 2000 and resulted in the U.S. Navy large-scale technology demonstrator craft "Sea Flyer." Using a surplus Navy SES-200 significantly reduced project costs. During the two-year project, Navatek removed the existing SES air lift system and all related components, and installed a 160-ton Navatek underwater lifting body incorporating a new propulsion drivetrain (engines, gearboxes, shafts and propellers) within the lifting body. This allows the craft to be operated with variable immersion as speed increases, with the parent hull fully out of the water at maximum speed.
An aft crossfoil was included for pitch and roll control, along with Navatek's proprietary, adaptive ride enhancement system (ARES).
Launched in June 2003 by Navatek sister company Pacific Shipyards International, the 165-foot, 30-knot "Sea Flyer" (originally named "HYSWAC") has a full-load displacement of 320 LT. It demonstrated significant payload-carrying capacity with no degradation in top speed, During successful sea trials in summer 2004, Sea Flyer confirmed on a large scale the major benefits of underwater lifting bodies.
- P - SWATH, Small Water Plane Twin Hull
SWATH, Small Water Plane Twin Hull. Twin hull boats of this type generally would not need hydrofoils, but similar single hull boats with submerged buoyancy bodies generally do need hydrofoils for stabilization. Still, because SWATH and hydrofoil boats share some common characteristics, they are represented herein.
Photos downloaded From:
- P - Tom Lang Ph.D, Kaimalino
- Q - Badges etc
For good descriptions of these boats go to IHS site:
Badges etc. at IHS Web Site
- Q - Commemorative Covers
For good descriptions of these boats go to IHS site:
Commemorative Covers at IHS Web Site
- Q - Dark Roasted Blend
Go to this web site for more:
- Q - Pioneers of Hydrofoils
For good descriptions of these boats go to IHS site:
Hydrofoil Pioneers at IHS Web Site
- Q - Postage Stamps
For good descriptions of these boats go to IHS site:
Postage Stamps at IHS Web Site
- Q - Postcards
For good descriptions of these boats go to IHS site:
Postcards at IHS Web Site
- S - Becker Marine Systems
- S - Blohm + Voss Industries GmbH
- S - DMS Holland
- S - Foure Lagadec
- S - Naiad Dynamics
- S - Products, Hydrfoil Related
- S - Quantum Stabilizers
- S - Rolls Royce
- S - SIREHNA
- S - Sleipner Side Power Stabilizer Systems
- S - Wesmar
- U - Basiliscus Paer
Paper by Tom Speer
- U - Digital Control System for HYRaii
- U - Foil
Foil leading edge
- U - FOILS, Front--Only
- U - FOILS, Rear Only
- U - Fuzzy Control Paper
Fuzzy Control Paper
- U - Plans and Drawings
Various plans and drawings, all types.
Posted by RV 6/25/2013
- U - Shutt Strut Front Foil Study
This album contains photos and a description of the front foil type commonly know and the "Schutt Strut". The purpose of this album is to help anyone trying to duplicate and use the Shutt Strut..
Special thanks go the Sid Shut, a retired aerospace engineer of Southern California, for whom the device was named in the 1960s. Although this type of mechanism was first seen in the early 1900s on a hydrofoil boat built by the Meacham brothers of Chicago, Illinois, it was Sid Shutt who perfected it and recognized it for its dependable flying characteristics.
The purpose of the device is to regulate the flying height of the bow (possibly the stern too, in some designs). The surface follower floats and plans, and when properly working it will always follow the surface.
The Shutt Strut is a one piece combination of a hydrofoil, vertical strut, pivot point, forward reaching follower arm, and a planing surface follower.
When the bow is low, the surfaced follower is high. This results in a high angle of attack for the foil. Therefore the lift is high and the bow rises. This lowers the surface follower (SF) relative to the bow. As the SF lowers, the foils angle of attack (AOA) is decreased until equilibrium is reached. At this point the bow is at the design flying height.
To adjust the Shutt Strut, the designer can change the angle between the strut and the follower arm, the point of rotation (re-drill the pivot hole), change the size and shape of the foil, change the AOA of the foil relative to the other components, change the size, shape, and planing angle of the surface follower, change the length of the surface follower arm (this changes the "gain") change the strut length, etc.
Text and photos by Ray Vellinga, 7/19/2013
- V - Do it yourself construction of hydrofoils
See these videos:
- W - Batman Returns Hydrofoil Model
AMT/Ertl model of Batman Hydrofoil in 1:25 scale on display at Scale ACT 2011 model exhibition in Canberra, Australia. This craft featured for only a few minutes on the movie "Batman Returns". The model has what could be described as 'struts' but no horizontal hydrofoil elements. Perhaps this is because it is only intended to be a 'waterline' model? Anyone who is a Batman fan may be able to elaborate further on this stylish looking craft.
- W - Batovce Lipovina
- W - Carton Ondule's Semi-Scale Hydrofoil Model - Carton Ondule
RADIO CONTROLLED HYDROFOIL MODEL ‘CARTON ONDULE’ BY HANS JORGEN HANSEN
The photos in this album show the hydrofoil model named ‘Carton Ondule’ built by International Hydrofoil Society member Hans Jorgen Hansen of Espergaerde near Copenhagen, Denmark.
The model is a semi-scale representation of the Supramar PT 150 Mk III built to a scale of 1:25. This was developed with reference to Jane’s Surface Skimmers. While the hull and superstructure are very much based on the PT 150, the foil arrangement is more akin to a Rodriquez RHS 160 or RHS 200. The hull is around 1520 mm long and 300 mm wide. The model has a mass of 11520 grams when complete with the set of eight NiCad batteries alone weighing some 2400 grams while ballast water in plastic bottles adds a further 3000 grams. This mass would correspond to 180 tonnes at full load, and brings the model to the waterline Hans Jorgen intended it to operate at. This full loaded displacement reported for the PT 150 is 165 tons so it is apparent the model has no problem operating beyond the scaled weight of its full size counterparts. In fact ‘Carton Ondule’ has been ballasted to a total mass as high as 12000 grams, and even with this substantial weight the model still becomes foilborne. To prevent the model from sinking if it becomes flooded, expanded polystyrene foam is also added inside the hull.
The method of fabrication of the hull is quite unusual in that cardboard is used as the basic building material. In fact, the name of the model is based on its use of cardboard (Carton) and the French word for waves (Ondule). Once the cardboard shell of the hull is assembled and stiffened where necessary, the inside of the hull is coated with fibreglass and polyester resin. In the process, the resin soaks into the cardboard leading to a tough waterproof shell. The exterior can then be lightly sanded to smooth the surface before it is painted. The entire superstructure is likewise constructed of cardboard and can be lifted off the hull to give good access to the battery packs, motors and radio control gear.
The bow foil is of a surface piercing ‘W’ configuration with an overall span of 640 mm and chord length which originally varied from 46 mm at the centre to 115 mm at the foil tips. When foilborne, the submerged portion of that foil has a span of about 450 mm. This foil provides the main longitudinal and lateral stability for the model. The stern foil is also of a surface piercing arrangement with a ‘\__/’ geometry so this also contributes to the stability of the model when foilborne. This has an overall span of 430 mm and originally had a constant 50 mm chord length. Both the bow and stern foils are manufactured from 3 mm thick solid aluminium alloy strips filed back to form streamlined hydrofoil profiles. In recent years, Hans Jorgen has experimented with reducing the chord length of both the bow and stern foils with the aim of reducing frictional resistance and hence increasing maximum speed. The bow foil chord has therefore been reduced to 20 mm over its centre portion increasing to 80mm further outboard. Likewise, the stern foil chord has been reduced to 23 mm at its base increasing to 35 mm near the tips. With these modifications, the model can travel at about 15 knots.
The bow foil is attached to the hull via three alloy struts. The outboard struts are rigidly connected to the hull while the centreline strut is simply bracketed to the keel of the hull without being fastened to it. This strut therefore simply helps to support the hull weight while the model is foilborne. The bow foil assembly was originally intended to have an adjustable incidence angle, which could be controlled by a motor driven actuator. This was subsequently found to be an un-necessary complication and so the bow foil incidence angle is maintained by a simple fixed link between a control horn attached to the bow foil and a bracket inside the hull. This arrangement also serves as a weak link that will fail should the model run aground. The stern foil assembly is connected to the hull via an aluminium rectangular hollow section cross beam. The two outboard struts fabricated of polycarbonate are connected to the port and starboard ends of this beam. A single centreline polycarbonate rudder also transmits the hull weight into the aft foil. The chord length of the rudder has also been reduced in recent years in an effort to increase the speed of the model.
Originally, Hans Jorgen had intended to power the model using a chain saw engine. This proved to be somewhat difficult and so he decided instead for it to be powered by a pair of Tamiya RX540VZ Technigold electric motors. Reduction gears with a toothed belt drive are fitted between the motors and the propeller shafts. The reduction ratio was originally 1:2.66 however this was later modified with new gears to become 1:2.90. The gear wheels were manufactured by Hans Jorgen using his own lathe. In more recent years, the motors have been replaced by LRP V10 type which are double wound with 11 turns (article no. 5711). The propeller shafts are 3 mm diameter piano wire which is thinner than the scaled dimension of the shafts of a PT 150. This helps to minimise hydrodynamic drag. The shafts are supported at the gearwheels adjacent to the motors, as they pass through the stern tubes, at an A bracket supporting each shaft and at bossings attached to the trailing edge of the stern foil. The shafts run in Teflon bronze bearings manufactured by Hans Jorgen with the aid of his lathe. In way of those supports, the shaft is built up to 4 mm diameter using stainless steel tubing which has been glued to the shafts. Elsewhere the steel shafts are painted to prevent rust. Each shaft originally drove a two bladed 45 mm diameter Graupner propeller with a high pitch ratio. For the faster model with its modified foils, 42.5 mm diameter Graupner propellers of medium pitch are instead fitted. Four sets of 7.2 Volt Sanyo 1500 mAh NiCad batteries supply power to each of the motors, providing 6 Amps current.
Control of the model is through a two-channel Futaba radio control unit, one channel for speed control the other for steering. This same unit is also used on Hans Jorgen’s smaller ‘El Foil’. The receiver is a Futaba FP-R102JE type, this being powered by the same battery pack as for propulsion using battery elimination circuitry (BEC). To cope with the large current flow, each motor has its own electronic speed controller, these being LRP F1 Pro Reverse Digital types (article no 8336). These controllers each have their own receivers and are fitted with similar crystals. The single servo on board the model controls the rudder through a straightforward pushrod protruding through the transom.
The model was built between 1981 and 1999 though it was largely complete by 1985. It continues to be used from time to time. The model has an endurance of some 45 minutes on the full set of batteries.
This is one of several hydrofoil models that Hans Jorgen Hansen has built or started to work on.
For more details, Hans Jorgen Hansen can be contacted by posting a message on the IHS Bulletin Board (see: www.foils.org)
All photos by Hans Jorgen Hansen.
1 & 2. ‘Carton Ondule’ underway.
3 & 4. ‘Carton Ondule’ on the work bench.
5. The bow foil of ‘Carton Ondule’ showing a ‘W’ layout similar to that on the Rodriquez RHS 160
and RHS 200 series hydrofoils.
6. The stern foil of ‘Carton Ondule’ showing a fairly typical Supramar / Rodriquez layout but unlike that of the PT 150 which had a fully submerged stern foil.
7 & 8. The motors and gearing and toothed belt arrangement used on ‘Carton Ondule’ showing the originally fitted Tamiya RX540VZ Technigold motors. The battery tray can be seen at the extremity of both photos.
- W - CVN 81 by george Onik
- W - Drone & Foil Combo
- W - Fanciful hydrofoils
- W - Funchal Jetfoil
- W - Grumman Design M-26
Believed to be patterned after the Grumman Plainview, AG(EH), this design of passenger carrying ship was never built except for this model.
This model of a hydrofoil was found February 2015 during a routine inventory at the Maritime Administration.
Do you, have any history/knowledge of this project?
The only markings are a name plate with the Grumman company logo and the
notation "Design M-26"
Obviously, it was a proposal that was never built...
Posted by Greg Stitz, MARAD Feb 2015
- W - Hans Jorgen Hansen's Own Design Hydrofoil Model - El Foil
RADIO CONTROLLED HYDROFOIL MODEL ‘EL FOIL’ BY HANS JORGEN HANSEN
The photos in this album show the hydrofoil model named ‘El Foil’ designed and built by International Hydrofoil Society member Hans Jorgen Hansen of Espergaerde near Copenhagen, Denmark.
The model does not represent any real hydrofoil type; rather it is to an original design portraying a small hydrofoil motorboat. The hull is around 400 mm long and 135 mm wide. It is fabricated of light aluminium alloy sheeting. The cabin top and aft deck can easily be removed to gain access to the battery pack and radio control gear. The model has a mass of about 880 grams when complete with battery.
The bow foil is of surface piercing ‘\_/’ configuration with an overall span of 260 mm and chord length varying from 12 mm at the centre to 40 mm at the foil tips. When foilborne, the submerged portion of that foil would have a span of about 180 mm. The bow foil provides the longitudinal and lateral stability for the model. It also incorporates a small fixed rudder projecting vertically up from the foil at its centreline. The stern foil is a fully submerged type without any dihedral and has a rectangular planform of 160 mm span and 14 mm chord length. Both the bow and stern foils are of solid aluminium alloy strips filed back to form streamlined hydrofoil profiles.
The design of the foil units is such that there is an absolute minimum of resistance. The bow foil is connected to the hull only via two thin struts, which in any case are out of the water when the model is running fully foilborne. The aft foil is likewise supported by a pair of thin struts connected to both sides of the hull aft. The single centreline rudder is relatively short and is mounted below the aft foil. The rudder stock is a thin wire running down from the hull and is supported by the aft foil. This arrangement means that there is no inefficient section of the rudder near the water surface. That approach also avoids the tendency to draw down air when in a turn and reduces un-necessary drag when travelling straight ahead. The model has a very rapid turning response with this rudder arrangement.
A single two-blade Graupner propeller of 30 mm diameter and a relatively low pitch propels ‘El Foil’. This is driven by a 12V Buehler type electric motor (sourced from a hair dryer) through a thin inclined drive shaft. Ten 1.2V Sanyo 1 Amp batteries in series supply power. The shaft is only supported as it passes through the hull and at the aft foil. Consequently, there is minimal frictional resistance sapping power from the motor. The shaft extends past the aft foil so that the propeller is well immersed and does not suffer from any ventilation problems when the model is underway. Cooling air is drawn in via a cabin top vent and is forced over the motor by a small propeller which acts as a fan. This is directly attached to the front of the motor shaft.
Control of the model is through a two-channel Futaba radio control unit, one channel for speed control the other for steering. The receiver is a Futaba FP-R102JE type, this being powered by the same battery pack as for propulsion using battery elimination circuitry (BEC). A Tekin TSC 610-G Goldfet electronic speed controller with reverse capability has replaced the Tamiya type mechanical speed controller that was originally fitted. This, combined with the BEC has lead to an overall weight saving through the elimination of one servo and the separate battery pack for the receiver and servos. The remaining servo controlling the single rudder is a Robbe RS50 type.
When the model is hullborne, both the bow and stern foils appear to have a small negative angle of attack. As such, when running the model ahead at slow speeds, the bow tends to want to ‘dig in’ given the relatively short hull. But with more power applied, the hull lifts out and then so too does the bow foil. Likewise, when backing the model up, it would almost be content to become foilborne in that direction! Reversing is therefore done at low power or in small bursts.
‘El Foil’ was built in 1986 but continues to run very well. For a model of its small size and moderate motor rating it has considerable speed and endurance, running for up to an hour on a straight course. Hans Jorgen has estimates the foilborne speed to be about 8 knots (4 m/s). The wide bow foil gives the model very good lateral stability and so it is able to make rapid turns without resulting in any significant heel angle, let alone risk of capsize. Hans Jorgen reports that the model has never had any problems associated with foil ventilation and does not require any fences. This is the smallest of the radio controlled hydrofoil models that Hans Jorgen has built, his other model, ‘Carton Ondule’ based on the PT 150 can run foilborne at a displacement of 12000 grams, more than 13 times the displacement of the little ‘El Foil’.
For more details, Hans Jorgen Hansen can be contacted by posting a message to him on the IHS Bulletin Board at www.foils.org
‘El Foil’ underway. Photo: Hans Jorgen Hansen
‘El Foil’ on stand. Note the propeller shaft projecting aft of the stern foil. The black propeller is hard to see in this photo but is immediately behind the metal cone. The small fixed bow rudder and controllable stern rudder are also visible. Photo: Hans Jorgen Hansen
- W - L'hydropter, Museum Model, Paris,France
Located in the Musee de Arts et Metiers in the 13th Arrondissement in Paris, this excellent model lets you get close-up to the image of world sailing speed record holder.
Photos taken by Ray Vellinga, 5/29/2013
- W - Lenzerheide
- W - Mini 40 RC Trimaran
- W - MK1
- W - Model Hydrofoils
For good descriptions of these boats go to IHS site:
Model Hydrofoils at IHS Web Site
- W - Model--COX-- Hydrofoil & Others
This is a cox plastic model battery-powered boat adapted to hydrofoils. It is very much underpowered and cannot fly, however it looks rather cute, do you agree?
Posted by Ray Vellinga 5/29/2013
- W - Models from Various Sources
These models from various sources lack accreditation. If your work is shown here, or that of others that you recognize, please submit your information for posting to:
- W - Nikko Van Stoke
- W - OU32 Yamaha
- W - Photo-Yoichi Takahashi Models
Yoichi Takahashi hydrofoil Models are of the finest coming from Japan today.
Photo, Yoichi Takahashi, Posted by RV 6/7/2013
- W - Radio Controlled Models
- W - RC Subarubiero
- W - Sarah
- W - Scale Model of Supramar PT 150 "Queen of the Waves"
Description of Radio Controlled model of Supramar PT 150 ‘Queen of the Waves’ built by Søren Struntze, Copenhagen, Denmark.
This is a somewhat condensed version of an article which originally appeared in the July-August 2002 issue of ‘Classic Fast Ferries’. While some more recent issues of the on-line journal are still available on http://www.classicfastferries.com, this issue is unfortunately no longer accessible online.
This very detailed 1:40 scale model of the Supramar PT 150 hydrofoil 'Queen of the Waves', has been under gradual construction since around 1975 by Copenhagen based naval architect and IHS member, Søren Struntze. It is one of three hydrofoil models built by Søren, the other pair are based on his own design concepts rather than being scale models of existing hydrofoil types. The full scale 'Queen of the Waves' was the second of three PT 150’s built by Westermoen Hydrofoil, and was completed in October 1970.
The 95 cm long hull consists of a light wooden frame composed of a keel, regularly spaced transverse frames and chine and deck edge strips covered mainly with 0.3mm thick aluminium alloy sheeting. The sheeting was attached to the frame with ‘blue Araldit’. The window recesses for the lower cabins are neatly cut out of the alloy sheeting.
As with the full-scale PT 150’s, the foils are of hollow construction with internal stiffening. Unlike the full-scale hydrofoils, which require high tensile steel for these items, the model foils are of the same aluminium alloy sheet used for building the hull. The foils were assembled with the aid of purpose built jigs to ensure correct alignment when complete.
The bow foil of the PT 150 is equipped with both inboard and outboard flaps on the port and starboard sides. On the model all four of these flaps are radio controlled via an intricate system of mechanical linkages. For gradual turns, the PT 150 hydrofoils only employed their bow foil flaps. It was only for more rapid turning that the rudders were also deflected in conjunction with the foil flaps. The same control arrangement was incorporated in the model such that a single steering servo would initially only activate the bow foil flaps, then, as more helm is applied, the pair of rudders are also deflected. Symmetric movement of the port and starboard flaps is also possible to adjust the trim of the boat. The flaps have a range of movement from 8.5 degrees up to 15.5 degrees down and are controlled via a set of 0.5mm diameter stainless steel wires inside 2.0mm diameter (0.9mm inside diameter) nylon tubes. These flap actuation wires emerge from the hull through the cross tube connecting the foil struts to the hull. They then run down to the foil within the hollow inclined struts. The control linkages for the flaps are completely hidden. In the event of a grounding, the bow foil will rotate backwards about the cross tube which is attached to a pair of shock absorbing springs. A ratchet mechanism has also been fitted to avoid the bow foils swinging forward again after impact.
The aft foil incidence angle is fully adjustable over a range from –2 to +2 degrees. This is servo controlled via push/pull 3mm aluminium rods leading down the rudder support struts in a similar manner to that of the bow foils. The full-scale PT 150 hydrofoils had an aft foil with hydraulically controlled incidence, but in addition were equipped with an air feed stabilisation system which controlled the lift generated by the foil while operating in waves.
The model weight is about 2.6 kg however since savings in weight are possible through changes to newer motors and batteries, ballast has been added in the lower portions of the foils to gain additional stability. This was achieved by inserting about 100g worth of ballpoint pen balls of about 1mm diameter each into the hollow sections of the alloy foils fixed in place with epoxy resin.
Initially twin electric Monoperm Super Special motors were fitted and these were both air and water cooled. The cooling water would be drawn in from the base of the rudders on the aft foils, just as the engine cooling water inlets are arranged on the full scale PT 150. Although these motors provide sufficient power, they had lower than optimum speed making it difficult to match them with optimum propellers. Therefore they have since been replaced with Power 400 series motors.
The battery bank consists of eight SAFT KR 35/44 Ni-Cd cells, each of 2.5 Ah capacity. With the considerable weight of batteries and the otherwise light construction of the model, these cells have been placed within a spring mounted shock-absorbing frame. The battery pack will eventually be replaced with a much lighter 7.2V 1.8Ah Ni-Cd set. The changes to the motors and battery pack are hoped to give an endurance greater than the already significant 20 minutes currently achieved.
The propeller shafting is of 2mm diameter stainless steel rod. Since this is less than the scale diameter of the actual shafts, for static display the shafting will be sheathed with 3.5mm diameter aluminium tubing between shaft bearings to give the correct scale appearance. Since the foil mounted shaft bearings rotate when the aft foil angle is adjusted, an intricate cardan shaft arrangement is incorporated to accommodate this movement. On the full scale PT 150 spherical bearings and sliding shaft couplings had been fitted to accommodate shaft deflections. The multitudes of hinged shaft support struts are all faithfully recreated on the model.
Construction of the hull and foils and the installation of running gear and radio equipment was complete by 1986, though the superstructure still needed to be built. None the less, it was now possible to test the model. To ensure it was watertight, and to simulate the additional top weight and windage of the final superstructure, a temporary ‘box’ superstructure was constructed and fitted to the model in preparation for the trials. After experimenting with different propellers to overcoming an initial teething problem of achieving a stable ride, the trials revealed the model would run in a manner just like its bigger sisters. Smaller faster running two blade propellers of 40mm diameter and 34mm pitch gave the best results with a considerable reduction in the current drawn from the batteries over the original propellers that had been fitted. With reassurance that the model would run properly, effort has since concentrated on adding details and building the superstructure.
The superstructure was fabricated largely of balsa wood and 0.5mm aeroplane plywood, but suitably toughened with resin applied to its surface. Some portions of the upper superstructure, where scale details would be revealed, were again fabricated from aluminium sheeting. The upper aft cabin and bulwarks at the bow and upper aft deck incorporate the intricate stiffening that would have been apparent on the full-scale vessel. The mast structure was also carefully fabricated from alloy. Elsewhere miniature stainless steel handrails are fitted.
Søren has gone to extraordinary lengths to model features of the interior of the hydrofoil. Ready for incorporation in the model are rows and rows of seats painted up in the various bright colours of their time, complete with miniature headrest covers made of tissue. Steps and bulkheads in the cabins are also modelled. On the upper deck, the bridge contains a comprehensive layout of scaled instrumentation with throttle levers a clearly distinguishable feature. On the aft bulkhead of the wheelhouse, further circuit boards and a radiophone can be spotted. A crew rest area is provided aft of the wheelhouse. Three hand made figurines representing the skipper, engineer and radio operator are at the controls. The radio operator is in a relaxed pose reclined back in his seat with feet up on the console reading the paper. Søren reports that the radio operator had the most time to spare on a typical voyage and so this was an appropriate snapshot of his life on board!
The larger windows around the wheelhouse and upper front saloon make it relatively easy to see inside those sections. Realising that it would not be as easy to see the details inside the remaining sections of the model, Søren decided to make all but two of the exterior doors functional so that they can be opened to peer inside the model. All doors come complete with working door handles!
The model is designed to be able to be separated into many sub-parts for ease of maintenance and repair. Several hidden latches on both the port and starboard sides secure the superstructure to the hull and these are simultaneously locked or released via a single actuator.
One of the neat features of the model is that there are few external indications that the model is radio controlled. The first impression is that the hydrofoil is purely built as a detailed static display model. The switch for the radio control gear, the bow foil adjustment jack and the central locking actuator for securing the superstructure are all neatly hidden under a scale hatch on the foredeck.
Photos included are:
1. The framing of the hull completed. Note the extensive use of lightening holes in the keel and transverse web frames. Circa 1975 (Søren Struntze)
2. The overall hull structure completed. The aluminium alloy sheet ‘shell plating’ can be clearly seen, as can the window cut-outs. Circa 1976 (Søren Struntze)
3. The bow foil being fabricated from thin aluminium alloy sheet with the aid of a construction jig. Circa 1976 (Søren Struntze)
4. Close-up of the bridge and crew accommodation area on the model taken in about 1995. Radio unit can be seen in the upper right while a matchstick in the upper left corner illustrates the small scale of the instrumentation (Søren Struntze).
5. A trial run of the model with the temporary superstructure fitted and insulation tape covering the incomplete window recesses in the hull. Antenna cable can be seen aft. Circa 1990 (Hans Jørgen Hansen)
6. The model as it stood in about 1995 (Hans Jørgen Hansen)
7. Another perspective of the model from around 1995. One can’t help but admire the details (Hans Jørgen Hansen)
The model constraction has advanced further since these photos were taken, however no more recent photos are available for the album at this stage. More details can be obtained from Søren Struntze by posting a message on the IHS Bulletin Board at www.foils.org. Be patient in awaiting a reply.
- W - SVER Futuristic Model Hydrofoil
This design with widespread surface piercing front foils and submerged rear foil/rudder is stable and is believed to fly well. There is a Youtube video showing this model flying.
A similar commercial model hydrofoil was available around 1993 - 1995. It was named the 24E Fast Electric Zytrion. It can be seen flying at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y9dQHku7UNc
Posted by RV, photos provided by the builder. 6/6/2013
- W - Søren Struntze's Own Design Hydrofoil Model - 140P
RADIO CONTROLLED HYDROFOIL MODEL BY SØREN STRUNTZE
This model representing a passenger hydrofoil to an original design which was conceived and built by International Hydrofoil Society member Søren Struntze of Copenhagen, Denmark.
The model was originally NiCAD battery powered using a single electric motor driving an inclined shaft and propeller.
This RC model has been successfully operated seasonally in Copenhagen by Søren Struntze for many years.
- W - UFO
- X S100
- Y - Barney C Black's Collection of Military Insignias
Barney Black, IHS. uploaded some pix of pins, patches, coins, etc. hydrofoil collectables. 6/20/2013
- Y - Foils, Details, etc.
- Y - Barney C Black's Hydrofoil Post Card Collection
Barney Black, IHS, wrote: I uploaded some photos of stamps and covers that feature hydrofoils. That could make up a small album and maybe people would add to it by depositing their images to the DROPBOX on this website.
Posted by Barney 6/22/2013
- Y - Horiuchi, Kotaro, Author: Locus of a Boat Designer 2
Video of OU 32
- Y - Kotaro Horiuchi's OU-32, etc.
. The following was submitted a couple of years ago by Carl Allison (email@example.com): "Yamaha demonstrated an OU-32, which was a fully enclosed two-man hydrofoil and it appeared on, I believe, "Beyond 2000" [Discovery Channel TV show]. That was the epitome of the personal hydrofoil, lacking only automated height control. This the market where hydrofoils might best be pushed for adoption. Price/performance in this area in more nearly comparable with other personal water craft vs. military vessels and large fast transports. I just wish that Yamaha had really released the OU-32. There were rumors out of Australia, then silence." To my knowledge this never went into production, at least not in the USA. If you wish to pursue this further, you might find someone in the Yamaha company that would steer you to the people who worked on the project. I have searched the web (though not recently) without finding anything on this.
From Ray Vellinga: Most of the questions one might have about Kotaro and his amazing boats will be found in his book , "Locus of a Boat Designer 2". For example, OU-32 was in the advanced prototyped testing stage when the economy descended into world-wide recession, and the project was suspended indefinitely.
I made a Youtube video of the boat, and the video went viral. I was seen more than 3,000,000 times as of 2013.
The Model shown of the OU-32 was created by Yoichi Takahashi.
Posted by RV. 6/16/2013
- Y - Logos
- Y - Magazine Articles
Online Hydrofoil Passenger Ferries Web Site
Classic Fast Ferries
- Y - Magazine Covers about Hydrofoils
Click on this address to read about the pictures shown here.
Posted by RV. 6/17/13
- Y - Popular Science
This fragment of a file shows part of the Popular Science article describing the making of a simple hydrofoil. More to follow if the rest of the story can be found.
Posted by R V 5/29/2013
- Y - Ray Vellinga Photos & Illustrations from "Hydrofoils: Design, Build, Fly"
This album contains the photos and illustrations from the book, hydrofoils: Design, Build, Fly. The complete book contains about 350 pages of text, photos, and illustrations.
Publication Date: September 5, 2009
This is a book on how to design, build and fly hydrofoil boats. It begins with the history and theory of hydrofoils, and continues with an explanation of flight characteristics, such as; stability, control, lift, drag, cavitation, and ventilation. Foil configurations, weight and balance, flying height, and roll management are covered as well as calculations of stress, hull configuration, and wing sizing. One section demonstrates methods for comparing designs, and explores specific design ideas for motorized, human powered, and sail powered hydrofoils. Piloting and trouble shooting are followed by a bibliography and index. This very complete book includes over 270 illustrations, charts and tables on the subject of creating hydrofoil boats. Because hydrofoils fly like airplanes, except in a denser fluid, the book's subject could be described as aerodynamics adapted to hydrofoils. It is the best book available for hydrofoil enthusiasts. There is no other book like it.
It is available at: http://www.amazon.com/Hydrofoils-Design-Build-Ray-Vellinga/dp/0982236115/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1371758755&sr=1-1&keywords=vellinga
Hifybe Videos on Youtube (Copy and Paste address into URL):
Posted by Ray Vellinga 6/21/2013
- Y - UFO
- Y- Theory of Wing Sections
- Y- Forbes Magazine
From 1983 Forbes Magazine advertisement contributed by Martinn Mandles
- Z - Hydrofoil Reunion
Held at NAS Key West from Sept 20-22 and Sponsored by: IHS & PHM MSLG
- Z - Mandles $2,500 Prize for Students
MANDLES PRIZE Video
- Z - Tacoma Maritime Fest 24-25 August 2013
- Z - Tacoma Maritime Fest, Fall 2011b
In August of 2012, the International Hydrofoil Society and Her Hetzer Hydrofoil Museum operated two booths at the Tacoma Maritime Fest.
Photos by Ray Vellinga, posted 5/31/2013
- ZZZZ - Misc waiting to be added to albums
- C - human-powered-hydrofoils.com/
Copy and paste this link into your URL: http://www.human-powered-hydrofoils.com/
- AAAA - Master Album Template
Master Album Description Example